A book that challenges the stereo type thinking of who is an exceptional person or group of people. The author has demonstrated that outliers are products of history and community, of opportunity and legacy. Their success is not exceptional or mysterious. It is grounded in a web of advantages and inheritances, some deserved, some not, some earned, some just plain lucky, but all critical to making them who they are. The book has so many examples of circumstances but the wonderful example of the Jewish emigre family to New York, the Borgenichts' showed how Louis and Regina may have been tired and poor and overwhelmed. For Louis being his own boss and making his own decisions, engaging his mind and imagination resulted in a relationship between effort and reward. The three things - autonomy, complexity and connection between effort and reward are, most people agree, the three qualities that work has to have if it has to be satisfying. Meaningfulness is very important in one's job or task for us to excel in it. Hard work is a prison sentence only if it does not have meaning. Once it does, it becomes the kind of thing that makes you grab your wife around the waist and dance a jig. For me, a crucial lesson to those who want to tackle the upper reaches of a profession is if you work hard enough and assert yourself, and use your mind and imagination, you can shape the world to your desire. Working hard is what successful people do. Even for subjects like mathematics, it's not ability as attitude. Success is a function of persistence and doggedness and the willingness to work. As the Chinese say "No one who can rise before dawn three hundred city days a year fails to make his family rich". In summary, outliers are those who have been given opportunities and who have had the strength and presence of mind to seize them. As the author summarises, "The outlier, in the end, is not an outlier at all.