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The 3M Model of Motivation and Personality : Theory and Empirical Applications to Consumer Behavior - John C. Mowen

The 3M Model of Motivation and Personality

Theory and Empirical Applications to Consumer Behavior

Hardcover Published: 30th November 1999
ISBN: 9780792385431
Number Of Pages: 314

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Integrating control theory, evolutionary psychology, and a hierarchical approach to personality, this book presents a new approach to motivation, personality, and consumer behavior. Called the 3M, which stands for `Meta-theoretic Model of Motivation', this theory seeks to account for how personality traits interact with the situation to influence consumer attitudes and actions. The book proposes that multiple personality traits combine to form a motivational network that acts to influence behavior. Mowen argues that in order to understand the causes of enduring behavioral tendencies, one must identify the more abstract traits underlying surface behaviors.
In constructing the 3M model, the author reports data from fifteen empirical studies employing over 3500 respondents. In this hierarchical model, four types of personality traits are identified: elemental, compound, situational, and surface traits. Eight elemental traits are proposed as forming the underlying dimensions of personality. Consistent with control theory, the research reveals that the elemental traits combine to form compound traits, such as self-efficacy, task orientation, playfulness, and competitiveness. These elemental and compound traits combine with situational influences to cause enduring behavioral tendencies within general situational contexts. Examples of situational traits investigated include impulsive buying, value consciousness, sports interest, and health motivation.
In the 3M model the elemental, compound, and situational traits combine to yield surface traits, which are enduring dispositions to act in specific behavioral contexts. Five surface traits are empirically investigated in the book: compulsive buying, sports participation, healthy diet lifestyles, proneness to bargaining, and a tendency to frugality. Across these five studies, the empirical results reveal that the 3M model accounts for over 44% of the variance in the surface trait measures. By presenting a new meta-theory of motivation and personality that is testable, Mowen's 3M model accounts for high levels of variance in consumer behavior. By integrating the work of selected past and current theorists into a comprehensible whole, the 3M model provides coherence in a field currently dominated by conflicting ideas, theories, and approaches. The book provides evidence that by understanding the individual dispositions that underlie consumer behavior, public policy officials and marketing specialists can develop better communication programs to influence and persuade their target audiences. The book shows how to employ the 3M model to segment the marketplace, provide psychographic inventories, position brands, create promotional themes, and develop brand personalities.

List of Figuresp. xiii
List of Tablesp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
The Development of the Theory
The 3M: A Meta-Theoretic Model of Motivation and Personalityp. 1
Abstractp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Some Problems with Current Approaches to Personality and Motivationp. 3
Final Notep. 9
Theoretical Development of the 3Mp. 11
Abstractp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Control Theory and the 3Mp. 12
Hierarchical Models of Personalityp. 15
Identifying the Traits at Each Hierarchical Levelp. 24
Integrating Control Theory, Trait Theory, Hierarchical Personality Models, and Evolutionary Psychology to Form the 3Mp. 32
Two Examples of the Application of the 3M Modelp. 38
The Empirical Approach of the Bookp. 41
Summaryp. 42
The Elemental Traits
Developing the Measures of the Eight Elemental Traitsp. 47
Abstractp. 47
Introductionp. 47
The Pilot Studiesp. 48
The Confirmatory Factor Analytic Studiesp. 51
Is the Need for Arousal an Elemental Trait?p. 55
Discussionp. 57
Investigating Compound Traits
Task Orientationp. 61
Abstractp. 61
Introductionp. 61
The Development of the Task Orientation Scalep. 63
Predicting Task Orientation with the Elemental Traitsp. 64
Predicting Situational Traits with Task Orientation and the Elemental Traitsp. 66
General Discussionp. 68
The Need for Learningp. 71
Abstractp. 71
Introductionp. 71
The Development of the Need for Learning Scalep. 72
Comparison of the Need for Learning Scale with the Need for Cognition Scalep. 74
Is the Need for Learning an Elemental or a Compound Trait?p. 75
Does the Need for Learning Meet the Four Criteria for a Compound Trait?p. 76
General Discussionp. 79
Competitivenessp. 81
Abstractp. 81
Introductionp. 81
The Development of the Need to Compete Scalep. 83
Predicting Competitiveness with the Elemental Traitsp. 84
Does Competitiveness Account for Variance Beyond the Elemental Traits?p. 86
Discussionp. 88
The Need for Activityp. 91
Abstractp. 91
Introductionp. 91
Developing the Need for Activity Scalep. 92
Testing the Need for Activity Scalep. 92
Discussionp. 96
The Need for Playp. 97
Abstractp. 97
Introductionp. 97
Theory and Research on Playp. 98
Developing the Need for Play Scalep. 100
Predicting the Need for Play with the Elemental Traitsp. 101
Predicting Other Traits with the Need for Playp. 103
Discussionp. 105
General Self-Efficacy and the Discriminant Validity of the Six Compound Traitsp. 109
Abstractp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Developing the Self-Efficacy Scalep. 111
The General Self-Efficacy Scalep. 113
The Self-Esteem Scalep. 113
Predicting General Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem with the Elemental Traitsp. 113
Predicting Other Traits with General Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteemp. 117
Assessing the Discriminant Validity of the Compound Traitsp. 120
General Discussionp. 120
From Situational to Surface Traits
From Health Motivation to Healthy Diet Lifestylep. 127
Abstractp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Developing the Hierarchical Modelp. 128
Methodologyp. 132
Resultsp. 132
Discussionp. 138
From Impulsiveness to Compulsive Consumptionp. 143
Abstractp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Does Keeping Up with the Joneses Result in Compulsive Buying?p. 145
Impulsiveness, Competitiveness, and Compulsive Buyingp. 146
Predicting Compulsive Buying with the Rokeach Value Inventory and the LOV Scalep. 149
Identifying Segments of Compulsive Buyersp. 150
General Discussionp. 152
From Value Consciousness to Bargaining Pronenessp. 157
Abstractp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Developing the Bargaining Proneness Scalep. 161
Further Investigations of Bargaining Pronenessp. 163
Discussionp. 168
From Sports Interest to Sports Participationp. 173
Abstractp. 173
Introductionp. 173
Methodp. 177
Resultsp. 178
Discussionp. 183
From Frugality to Modest Livingp. 187
Abstractp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Developing the Tightwad Scalep. 189
Discussionp. 192
Comparing the Tightwad Scale to the Frugality Scalep. 193
Resultsp. 194
General Discussionp. 200
Additional Investigations Into the Hierarchical Model
What is an Extrovert? They are More Than They Seem!p. 207
Abstractp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Assessing the Saucier (1994) Extraversion Constructp. 209
Assessing the Eysenck Measure of Extraversionp. 211
General Discussionp. 214
From Chick-Flicks to Guy-Flicks to Sci-Fi Junkies: Traits of Movie Houndsp. 219
Abstractp. 219
Introductionp. 219
Predicting Movie Preferencesp. 223
Resultsp. 224
Discussionp. 229
Predicting Gender and Agep. 230
Resultsp. 231
Discussionp. 232
General Discussionp. 233
The 3M and Developing Marketing Communications: An Empirical Studyp. 235
Abstractp. 235
Introductionp. 235
p. 237
p. 243
Overall Discussionp. 247
Hard Questions and Tentative Answers About the 3Mp. 253
Abstractp. 253
Introductionp. 253
Overview and Summary of Findingsp. 254
Does the 3M Make a Contribution to the Literature?p. 261
Five Criticisms of the 3Mp. 269
Future Directions for Researchp. 275
Appendicesp. 279
Key Definitionsp. 281
Final Items for the Eight Elemental Traitsp. 283
The Studiesp. 284
Coefficient Alphas of Constructs Employed in Eight Studiesp. 294
Means and Standard Deviations of Constructs Employed in Eight Studiesp. 295
Referencesp. 297
Name Indexp. 307
Subject Indexp. 311
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792385431
ISBN-10: 0792385438
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 314
Published: 30th November 1999
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.69

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