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Turning a Problem Into a Resource : Remediation and Waste Management at the Sillamae Site, Estonia - Cheryl K. Rofer

Turning a Problem Into a Resource

Remediation and Waste Management at the Sillamae Site, Estonia

By: Cheryl K. Rofer (Editor), Tonis Kaasik (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st August 2000
ISBN: 9780792361862
Number Of Pages: 277

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The Sillam„e Metallurgy Plant in Estonia was managed by the USSR Ministry of Medium-Scale Engineering and was built in 1946 to produce uranium metal from local shales. After these were found to be unsatisfactory, uranium ores were imported. Part of the plant was converted in the 1980s to produce rare earth oxides and niobium and tantalum from imported ores and concentrates. Uranium production on the site ceased in 1990. Environmental liabilities at Sillam„e include a large pond, located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, containing tailings from the metals processing and oil shale ash from power production. The pond's dike must be stabilised, and dust emissions, uranium and nitrate leaching must be addressed to bring the site into compliance with environmental regulations. Wastes from current processing are still being discharged to the pond, and this must cease by the end of 2002. Remediation is estimated to cost USD 22.5 million.
The present volume collects information on the current situation at Sillam„e and potential solutions to its problems, based on similar experience elsewhere. A great deal of oil shale ash is present at the site and solutions to this problem may well be applicable to other sites in surrounding areas. The plant itself was closed to ethnic Estonians during the USSR's management, being populated predominantly by ethnic Russians. The technical problems are thus also addressed in broad context, meaning that the volume will also be useful to urban planners, economists and others.

Acknowledgments
Introduction and Recommendations
Industrial Complex in Northeast Estonia: Technical, Economic and Environmental Aspectsp. 1
Uranium Processing at Sillamae and Decommissioning of the Tailingsp. 5
Sillamae - A Common Baltic Concernp. 15
Master Plan for Remediation of the Sillamae Tailings Pond and Technical Design Projectp. 21
Site Monitoringp. 27
Stability of the Dam at the Sillamae Tailings Pondp. 31
Process Flow Sheetp. 47
Rare Earth Production at the Sillamae Plant, 1969-1991 and the Possibility of Scandium Extraction from Loparitep. 57
Indoor Occupational Exposure to Radiation at the Silmet Plant in Estonia: A Preliminary Assessmentp. 63
Remediation of the Former Uranium Mine Ranstadp. 69
Remediation of Tailings Damsp. 75
Remediation Concepts for Uranium Mining Operations in CEEC: A Phare Multi-Country Environmental Sector Programmap. 81
WISMUT Experience in Remediation of Uranium Mill Tailings Pondsp. 93
Post-Remediaton Monitoring and Maintenance Experience at Uranium Mill Tailings Sites, United Statesp. 107
Current State of Remediation of Tailings Ponds and Their Surroundings in Hungaryp. 117
The Environmental Impact of Former Uranium Mining Activities at the Novoveska Huta Site, Slovakiap. 129
A "Heritage" from Uranium Mining in Polandp. 133
A Field Study of Capillary and Hydraulic Barriers in Landfill Covers Varying in Slope at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USAp. 139
Estonian Radiation Protection Requirements and the Sillamae Sitep. 153
Legal Responsibility and Liability for the Sillamae Sitep. 165
Regulations and Requirements - Swedish Approachp. 171
Nordic Experience with Environmental Regulationsp. 177
Outline of a Multiattribute Utility Approach to Development of a Waste Management Strategy at Sillamaep. 185
The Potential for Economic Recovery of Metals from the Sillamae Sitep. 195
Oil Shale Ash: Its Characterization and Possible Use in Remediation at the Sillamae Sitep. 207
Types of Oil Shale Ash and Methods for Increasing Their Reactivityp. 215
Utilization of Semi-Coke for Energy Productionp. 223
Magnetic Separation for Rare Earth Oxide Recovery at Sillamae, Estonia
Purification and Utilization of Waste Waters from Silmet Plant Containing Ammonium Saltsp. 237
New Approaches for the Treatment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materialsp. 245
Ash Cements Stabilized by Supercritical CO[subscript 2] Carbonation for Tailings Pond Overlayerp. 253
A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Processp. 265
Indexp. 275
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792361862
ISBN-10: 0792361865
Series: NATO Science Partnership Subseries: 1
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 277
Published: 31st August 2000
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.75
Weight (kg): 0.59

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