Preface and Acknowledgments | p. ix |

Introduction | |

Structural Equation Models: The Basics | p. 3 |

Basic Concepts | p. 4 |

The General Structural Equation Model | p. 9 |

The General EQS Structural Equation Model | p. 14 |

Using the EQS Program | p. 18 |

Components of the EQS Input File | p. 19 |

The Concept of Model Identification | p. 30 |

Creating the EQS Input File | p. 37 |

Building an Input File Manually | p. 36 |

Building an Input File Interactively Using BUILD_EQS | p. 38 |

Building an Input File Graphically Using the DIAGRAMMER | p. 48 |

The EQS Output File in General | p. 71 |

EQS Error Messages | p. 73 |

Overview of Remaining Chapters | p. 74 |

Single-Group Analyses | |

Application 1: Testing for the Factorial Validity of a Theoretical Construct (First-Order CFA Model) | p. 77 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 78 |

The EQS Input File | p. 82 |

The EQS Output File | p. 86 |

Model Specification and Analysis Summary | p. 87 |

Model Assessment | p. 89 |

Model Misspecification | p. 108 |

Post Hoc Analyses | p. 112 |

Application 2: Testing for the Factorial Validity of Scores From a Measuring Instrument (First-Order CFA Model) | p. 118 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 119 |

The EQS Input File | p. 127 |

The EQS Output File | p. 129 |

Post Hoc Analyses | p. 137 |

Application 3: Testing for the Factorial Validity of Scores From a Measuring Instrument (Second-Order CFA Model) | p. 158 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 159 |

Analysis of Categorical Data | p. 163 |

Categorical Variables Analyzed as Continuous Variables | p. 163 |

Categorical Variables Analyzed as Categorical Variables | p. 164 |

Analyses Based on Data Regarded as Categorical | p. 167 |

The EQS Input File | p. 167 |

The EQS Output File | p. 170 |

Post Hoc Analyses | p. 176 |

Analyses Based on Data Regarded as Continuous | p. 179 |

The EQS Output File | p. 179 |

Application 4: Testing for the Validity of a Causal Structure | p. 186 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 186 |

Formulation of Indicator Variables | p. 188 |

Confirmatory Factor Analyses | p. 189 |

The EQS Input File | p. 191 |

The EQS Output File | p. 199 |

Post Hoc Analyses | p. 205 |

Multiple-Group Analyses | |

Application 5: Testing for the Factorial Invariance of a Measuring Instrument | p. 225 |

Testing for Multigroup Invariance | p. 226 |

Testing for Invariance Across Independent Samples | p. 228 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 228 |

The EQS Input File | p. 234 |

The EQS Output File | p. 237 |

Other Considerations in Testing for Multiple Group Invariance | p. 245 |

Application 6: Testing for the Invariance of a Causal Structure | p. 250 |

Cross-Validation in SEM | p. 250 |

Testing for Invariance Across Calibration/Validation Samples | p. 252 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 253 |

The EQS Input File | p. 253 |

The EQS Output File | p. 259 |

Application 7: Testing for Latent Mean Differences (First-Order CFA Model) | p. 261 |

Basic Concepts Underlying Tests of Latent Mean Structures | p. 262 |

Modeling Mean Structures in EQS | p. 263 |

Testing for Latent Mean Differences of a First-Order CFA Model | p. 267 |

The Strategy | p. 267 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 267 |

The EQS Input File | p. 274 |

The EQS Output File | p. 277 |

Application 8: Testing for Latent Mean Differences (Second-Order CFA Model) | p. 293 |

Testing for Latent Mean Differences of a Second-Order Model | p. 294 |

The Strategy | p. 294 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 294 |

Other Important Topics | |

Application 9: Testing for Construct Validity: The Multitrait-Multimethod Model | p. 325 |

The General CFA Approach to MTMM Analyses | p. 330 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 330 |

The EQS Input File | p. 332 |

The EQS Output File | p. 332 |

The Correlated Uniqueness Approach to MTMM Analyses | p. 344 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 346 |

The EQS Input File | p. 348 |

The EQS Output File | p. 348 |

Application 10: Testing for Change Over Time: The Latent Growth Curve Model | p. 352 |

Measuring Change in Individual Growth Over Time: The General Notion | p. 354 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 354 |

Modeling Intraindividual Change | p. 354 |

Modeling Inter-individual Differences in Change | p. 358 |

Testing for Inter-individual Differences in Change | p. 359 |

The EQS Input File | p. 362 |

The EQS Output File | p. 362 |

Gender as a Time-Invariant Predictor of Change | p. 370 |

The EQS Input File | p. 373 |

The EQS Output File | p. 373 |

Application 11: Testing for Within- and Between-Level Variance: The Multilevel Model | p. 376 |

Overview of Multilevel Modeling | p. 377 |

Single-Level Analyses of Hierarchically Structured Data: Related Problems | p. 377 |

Multiple Level Analyses of Hierarchically Structured Data: Multilevel Modeling | p. 378 |

The Hypothesized Model | p. 379 |

The EQS Input File | p. 391 |

The EQS Output File | p. 396 |

References | p. 411 |

Author Index | p. 425 |

Subject Index | p. 429 |

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