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Manipulating Quantum Structures Using Laser Pulses - Bruce W. Shore

Manipulating Quantum Structures Using Laser Pulses

Hardcover Published: 29th September 2011
ISBN: 9780521763578
Number Of Pages: 586

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The use of laser pulses to alter the internal quantum structure of individual atoms and molecules has applications in quantum information processing, the coherent control of chemical reactions and in quantum-state engineering. This book presents the underlying theory of such quantum-state manipulation for researchers and graduate students. The book provides the equations, and approaches for their solution, which can be applied to complicated multilevel quantum systems. It also gives the background theory for application to isolated atoms or trapped ions, simple molecules and atoms embedded in solids. Particular attention is given to the ways in which quantum changes can be displayed graphically to help readers understand how quantum changes can be controlled.

Industry Reviews

'... this remarkable volume offers a clear approach to the theoretical basis of coherent interactions between light and matter on the quantum scale.' Optics and Photonics News
'... a remarkable volume ... This book has exemplary clarity of exposition...' Optics and Photonics News
"...this book is a remarkable volume. It offers a clear approach to the theoretical basis of coherent interactions between light and matter on the quantum scale. This book has exemplary clarity of exposition, which is no doubt a result of the 30 years of research undertaken by the author. Indeed, he is one of the pioneering explorers of the field." K. Alan Shore, Optics & Photonics News
'... a remarkable volume ... This book has exemplary clarity of exposition...' Optics and Photonics News

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Objectivep. 1
Backgroundp. 1
Measurables, observables, and parametersp. 2
Notation and nomenclaturep. 5
Limitations of the theoryp. 7
Basic referencesp. 8
Atoms as structured particlesp. 9
Spectroscopyp. 10
Quantum statesp. 13
Probabilitiesp. 15
Radiationp. 19
Thermal radiation; quantap. 19
Cavitiesp. 20
Incoherent radiationp. 21
Laser radiationp. 22
Laser fieldsp. 23
Field vectorsp. 31
Laser beamsp. 40
Photonsp. 41
Field restrictionsp. 43
The laser-atom interactionp. 44
Individual atomsp. 44
Detecting excitationp. 50
The interaction energy; multipole momentsp. 52
Moving atomsp. 54
Picturing quantum structure and changesp. 57
Free electrons: Ponderomotive energyp. 57
Picturing bound electronsp. 58
The Lorentz forcep. 61
The wavefunction; orbitalsp. 62
The statevector; Hilbert spacesp. 66
Two-state Hilbert spacesp. 69
Time-dependent statevectorsp. 73
Picturing quantum transitionsp. 76
Incoherence: Rate equationsp. 78
Thermalized atoms; the Boltzmann equationp. 78
The radiative rate equationsp. 79
The Einstein ratesp. 79
The two-state rate equationsp. 81
Solutions to the rate equationsp. 81
Commentsp. 83
Coherence: The Schrödinger equationp. 85
Essential states; effective Hamiltoniansp. 87
The coupled differential equationsp. 88
Classes of interactionp. 93
Classes of solutionsp. 93
The time-evolution matrix; transition probabilitiesp. 95
Two-state coherent excitationp. 97
The basic equationsp. 97
Abrupt startp. 104
The rotating-wave approximation (RWA)p. 108
Adiabatic time evolutionp. 118
Comparison of excitation methodsp. 135
Weak pulse: Perturbation theoryp. 137
Weak resonant excitationp. 138
Pulse aftermath and frequency contentp. 138
Example: Excitation despite missing frequenciesp. 139
The Dirac (interaction) picturep. 141
Weak broadband radiation; transition ratesp. 142
Fermi's famous Golden Rulep. 144
The vector modelp. 146
The Feynman-Vernon-Hellwarth equationsp. 146
Coherence loss; relaxationp. 150
Sequential pulsesp. 159
Contiguous pulsesp. 159
Pulse trainsp. 160
Examplesp. 162
Pulse pairsp. 163
Vector picture of pulse pairsp. 165
Creating dressed statesp. 167
Zero-area pulsesp. 168
Degeneracyp. 171
Zeeman sublevelsp. 171
Radiation polarization and selection rulesp. 172
The RWA with degeneracyp. 177
Optical pumpingp. 179
General angular momentump. 181
Three statesp. 186
Three-state linkagesp. 186
The three-state RWAp. 188
Resonant chainsp. 197
Detuningp. 201
Unequal Rabi frequenciesp. 211
Laser-induced continuum structure (LICS)p. 218
Raman processesp. 222
The Raman Hamiltonianp. 222
Population transferp. 223
Explaining STIRAPp. 230
Demonstrating STIRAPp. 235
Optimizing STIRAP pulsesp. 237
Two-state versions of STIRAPp. 239
Extending STIRAPp. 243
Multilevel excitationp. 253
Multiphoton and multiple-photon ionizationp. 253
Coherent excitation of JV-state systemsp. 255
Chainsp. 259
Branchesp. 277
Loopsp. 287
Multilevel adiabatic time evolutionp. 292
Averages and the statistical matrix (density matrix)p. 299
Ensembles and expectation valuesp. 299
Statistical averagesp. 300
Environmental averagesp. 302
Expectation valuesp. 304
Uncertainty relationsp. 307
The density matrixp. 308
Density matrix equation of motionp. 313
Incorporating incoherent processesp. 317
Rotating coordinatesp. 321
Multilevel generalizationsp. 324
Systems with partsp. 331
Separability and factorizationp. 331
Center of mass motionp. 333
Two partsp. 338
Correlation and entanglementp. 343
Preparing superpositionsp. 347
Superposition constructionp. 347
Nondegenerate statesp. 348
Degenerate discrete statesp. 350
Transferring superpositionsp. 351
State manipulations using Householder reflectionsp. 352
Measuring superpositionsp. 357
General remarksp. 357
Spin matrices and quantum tomographyp. 359
Two-state superpositionsp. 362
Analyzing multistate superpositionsp. 364
Analyzing three-state superpositionsp. 366
Alternative proceduresp. 368
Overall phase; interferometry and cyclic dynamicsp. 370
Hilbert-space raysp. 371
Parallel transportp. 372
Phase definitionp. 373
Michelson interferometryp. 374
Alternative interferometryp. 377
Ramsey interferometryp. 378
Cyclic systemsp. 379
Atoms affecting fieldsp. 387
Induced dipole moments; propagationp. 387
Single field, N= 2p. 389
Multiple fieldsp. 402
Two or three fields, N = 3p. 403
Four fields, N = 4; four-wave mixingp. 410
Steady state; susceptibilityp. 413
Atoms in cavitiesp. 419
The cavityp. 420
Two-state atoms in a cavityp. 423
Three-state atoms in a cavityp. 429
Control and optimizationp. 435
Control theoryp. 435
Quantum controlp. 436
Optimizationp. 439
Angular momentump. 442
Angular momentum statesp. 442
Angular momentum couplingp. 451
Hyperfine linkagesp. 456
The multipole interactionp. 459
The bound-particle interactionp. 459
The multipole momentsp. 462
Examplesp. 464
Induced momentsp. 464
Irreducible tensor formp. 465
Rabi frequenciesp. 465
Angular momentum selection rulesp. 466
Classical radiationp. 468
The Lorentz force; Maxwell's equationsp. 468
Wave equationsp. 470
Frequency componentsp. 476
The influence of matterp. 480
Pulse-mode expansionsp. 482
Quantized radiationp. 487
Field quantizationp. 488
Mode fieldsp. 496
Photon statesp. 505
The free-field radiation Hamiltonianp. 507
Interpretation of photonsp. 509
Adiabatic statesp. 513
Terminologyp. 513
Adiabatic evolutionp. 515
The Dykhne-Davis-Pechukas (DDP) formulap. 519
Dark states; the Morris-Shore transformationp. 522
The Morris-Shore transformationp. 522
Bright and dark statesp. 524
Fan linkagesp. 526
Chain linkagesp. 526
Generalizationsp. 527
Near-periodic excitation; Floquet theoryp. 528
Floquet's theoremp. 528
Example: Two statesp. 530
Floquet theory and the RWAp. 531
Floquet theory and the Jaynes-Cummings modelp. 531
Near-periodic excitation; adiabatic Floquet theoryp. 532
Example: Two statesp. 534
Adiabatic Floquet energy surfacesp. 536
Transitions; spectroscopic parametersp. 537
Spectroscopic parametersp. 537
Relative transition strengthsp. 538
Referencesp. 542
Indexp. 565
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521763578
ISBN-10: 0521763576
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 586
Published: 29th September 2011
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.64 x 17.53  x 3.05
Weight (kg): 1.28
Edition Number: 1

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