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Laser in Environmental and Life Sciences : Modern Analytical Methods - Peter Hering

Laser in Environmental and Life Sciences

Modern Analytical Methods

By: Peter Hering (Editor), Jan Peter Lay (Editor), Sandra Stry (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 24th September 2003
ISBN: 9783540402602
Number Of Pages: 347

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Studies of environmental conditions have become more and more important for oUf knowledge about the complex processes resulting from natural and man-made influences on OUf environment. During recent years new analytical techniques have been developed that are mainly based on laser spectroscopy. They are not only more sensitive and reach lower detection limits but they also give more de- tailed information on the species under investigation and their interactions with the environment. They therefore can considerably deepen OUf understanding of correlations between different processes and their causes, which is the precondi- tion for avoiding ecological damage and for strengthening effective engagement in environmental protection. Also in life sciences revolutionary new techniques for diagnostics have been in- troduced which allow a thorough investigation of biological processes in plants and their dependence on environmental conditions. In particular for medical appli- cations these new mainly non-invasive techniques have influenced medical diag- nostics and treatment considerably. This book deals with these very interesting interdisciplinary subjects which demand experience and knowledge about both fields: the basic physics of the de- tection techniques and the relevant problems in environmental and life sciences. Therefore authors from a broad area of fundamental and applied research have contributed to this book, which is organized in 4 sections: Remote sensing of the atmosphere, detection techniques for liquid and solid samples, applications to gaseous substances and aerosols and finally applications in biology and medicine.

Industry Reviews

From the reviews:

"This book deals with a selection of interdisciplinary subjects relating to both the basic physics of the detection techniques involved and the relevant problems in environmental and life sciences. ... By and large, given the quality and clarity of the various contributions, the book can be recommended to all those requiring a readable and factual introduction into these new fields and methods of analysis." (A. Buekens, International Journal Environment and Pollution, Vol. 25 (1-4), 2005)

"This book deals with ... very interesting interdisciplinary areas. Prominent scientists report on their current research; demonstrate that multi-disciplinary applications are possible; and employ examples on how existing environmental diagnostic methods have found their way into the life sciences. ... Biologists, medical people or environmentalists, should recognize the new possibilities opened by these techniques. This volume may also serve to start more initiatives for a closer cooperation between physicists, chemists, biologists and medical people." (International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 84 (14-15), 2004)

"This book is intended to enable biologists, clinicians and environmentalists to recognise the new possibilities that analytical techniques based on laser spectroscopy offer. It is a comprehensive reference work, which presents state of the art laser-included analytical methods in an interdisciplinary fashion, explaining the basic physics of the detection techniques as well as their applications." (LabPlus International, Vol. 28 (1), 2004)

Remote Sensing Methods in the Atmospherep. 1
Lidar: An Overviewp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Backscatter Lidar (Rayleigh-Mie-Lidar)p. 4
DIALp. 7
Raman Lidarp. 11
Doppler-Lidarp. 14
Outlookp. 15
Referencesp. 16
Application Perspectives of Intense Laser Pulses in Atmospheric Diagnosticsp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses With Air - Detection of Gasesp. 21
Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Microdroplets - Characterization of Aerosolsp. 24
Outlookp. 31
Referencesp. 32
Analysis of Three Dimensional Aerosol Distributions by Means of Digital Holographyp. 35
Abstactp. 35
Introductionp. 35
Digital Holographyp. 36
Storage of the Digital Hologramp. 36
Digital Reconstruction of the Stored Volumep. 37
Development of an Aerosol Analysis Aystem on the Basis of Digital Holographyp. 38
Analysis of Digitally Reconstructed Dropletsp. 41
Recognition of Droplets, Determination of Localization and Sizep. 41
Resultsp. 43
Field Campaign FELDEX 2000p. 44
Discussionp. 45
Acknowledgementp. 46
Referencesp. 47
Applications in Liquid and Solid Statesp. 49
Laser-Based Analysis of Solids with Environmental Impactp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopyp. 53
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Mineral Oils in Soilsp. 54
DDT on Woodp. 55
Pesticides on Leavesp. 59
Rock Identificationp. 59
Conclusionp. 59
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopyp. 60
Recycled Thermoplastics from Consumer Electronics Wastep. 61
Inorganic Wood Preservativesp. 62
Transformation of Spatial in Pseudo-Temporal Resolutionp. 63
Multi-Element Detection of Pollutants in Soilp. 64
Combination Technique: LIBS-LIFp. 64
Conclusionp. 65
Vibrational Spectroscopyp. 65
Infrared Spectroscopyp. 66
Raman Spectroscopyp. 66
Laser Ablation, Laser Desorption, Laser Ionizationp. 67
Mass Spectrometryp. 67
Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometryp. 68
Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometryp. 68
Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometryp. 68
Laser-based Ion Mobility Spectrometryp. 69
Organic Wood Preservativesp. 70
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soilsp. 71
Photo- and Optoacoustic Spectroscopyp. 71
PCP Detection on Woodp. 72
Determination of the Optical Properties of Human Skinp. 72
Other Techniques and Outlookp. 73
Referencesp. 74
Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectroscopy for the In Situ Analysis of Petroleum Product-Contaminated Soilsp. 79
Introductionp. 79
Experimental Techniquesp. 81
The LIF demonstrator unitp. 81
The mobile LIF spectrometer OPTIMOSp. 82
Investigated petroleum products and soil samplesp. 83
Results and Discussionp. 84
Photophysical properties of the petroleum productsp. 84
LIF spectroscopic investigations of oil-spiked samplesp. 89
LIF spectroscopic investigations of real-world soilsp. 92
Field investigationsp. 93
Conclusionsp. 95
Acknowledgmentp. 96
Referencesp. 97
Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in Environmental and Process Analysisp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Plasma Generationp. 100
Spectrochemical Analysis with Laser Plasmasp. 104
Instrumentationp. 108
Applications in Environmental and Process Analysisp. 112
Solid Samplesp. 112
Liquid Samples and Colloidsp. 114
Gaseous Samples and Aerosolsp. 115
Conclusion and Outlookp. 117
Referencesp. 118
Intracavity-, Laser-Desorption- and Cavity Ring-Down Techniques as Detection Devices for Samples in Condensed Phasesp. 125
An Intracavity Laser Raman Detection Device for HPLC Chromatographyp. 125
Experimental Approachp. 126
Resultsp. 128
Laser Desorption Spectroscopyp. 130
Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy of the Condensed Phasep. 131
Introductionp. 131
Current Status of the Development of Condensed Phase CRDSp. 133
Further Developments of Mirror Coated Thin Film CRDSp. 133
Improved Sensitivity of Detection by Utilizing the Dependence of Absorption on the Spatial Position of the Ultrathin Layer in the Electromagnetic Wavep. 136
Extension of Our Method to Liquidsp. 137
Acknowledgementsp. 139
Referencesp. 139
Application of Two-Dimensional LIF for the Analysis of Aromatic Molecules in Waterp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Hardwarep. 142
Overviewp. 142
Laserp. 143
Detection System Ip. 145
Detection System IIp. 146
Current developmentp. 147
Optimised Sensor Geometryp. 148
Data processing and Calibrationp. 150
Introductionp. 150
PLS-Calibrationp. 150
Applicationsp. 151
Acknowledgementsp. 160
Referencesp. 161
Applications for Gaseous Substances and Aerosolsp. 163
Chemical Analysis with Multi-Dimensional and On-Line Selectivity Using Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Mass or Species Separationp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Resonant Laser Mass Spectrometryp. 166
Laser-assisted Selective Detection in Chromatographyp. 170
Two-Dimensional Selectivity by Absorption/Emission Spectroscopyp. 173
Laser-Assisted Analysis of Solid Samplesp. 178
Diode Lasers: A Step Toward Miniaturization of Laser-Based Chemical Analysis?p. 184
Referencesp. 188
Rapid Analysis of Complex Mixtures by Means of Resonant Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometryp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Principles of Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometryp. 194
Resonant Multiphoton Ionizationp. 194
Time-of-flight mass spectrometryp. 198
Laser desorptionp. 200
Application Examplesp. 201
On-line exhaust gas analysisp. 201
Soil Analysisp. 209
Conclusionp. 216
Acknowledgementp. 218
Referencesp. 219
Diode-Laser Sensors for In-Situ Gas Analysisp. 223
Absorption Spectroscopyp. 223
Mid-Infrared Diode-Laser Spectrometersp. 226
Near-Infrared Overtone Spectrometerp. 235
Quantum Cascade Lasersp. 237
Quantum Limited Spectroscopyp. 240
Referencesp. 242
Applications in Life Sciencep. 245
Laser Analytics of Gas Samples in Life Sciencep. 247
Introductionp. 247
Sources of Biological Gas Samplesp. 248
Composition of exhaled breathp. 249
Other biological sources of gaseous emissionsp. 252
Instrumentation for Laser Analytics of Breath and Other Biological Gas Samplesp. 253
Sample collection and preparationp. 253
Laser spectroscopic techniquesp. 255
Application of Breath Testsp. 259
Monitoring of endogenous volatile diseasemarkers in breathp. 259
Use of stable isotope markers for medical and pharmaceutical researchp. 262
Conclusion and Perspectivesp. 263
Referencesp. 264
Detection of Nitric Oxide in Human Exhalation Using Laser Magnetic Resonancep. 269
Free Radical Spectroscopy, a Challenge for Sensitive Detectionp. 269
Applied Spectroscopy using the LMR Methodp. 274
Dynamic Behaviour of NO in Exhalationp. 274
Blood Pressure Regulating NOp. 278
In-Vitro Investigations using LMRp. 280
Applications in Pharmacologyp. 280
Future Development, Smaller and Simplerp. 280
Acknowledgementsp. 281
Referencesp. 282
Medical Trace Gas Detection by Means of Mid-Infrared Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopyp. 283
Introductionp. 283
The CO-Overtone Spectrometerp. 284
Demonstration of Medical Applications with the CO-Overtone Spectrometerp. 287
Oxidative Stressp. 287
Measurements on Smokersp. 288
Further Applicationsp. 289
Transportable Setup (DFG Laser)p. 290
Outlookp. 292
Acknowledgementp. 293
Referencesp. 293
Practical Applications of CRDS in Medical Diagnosticsp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopyp. 297
Applicationsp. 303
Helicobacter Pylori Detectionp. 303
Analysis of the Exhaled Breath in Smokersp. 308
Summaryp. 310
Referencesp. 311
Photoacoustic Trace Gas Detection in Plant Biologyp. 313
Introductionp. 313
The CO Overtone Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometerp. 314
Characterization of the spectrometerp. 315
Comparison of acetaldehyde detection with PAS and HPLCp. 316
New Radiation Sources for PA Detectionp. 317
Photoacoustic detection with an optical parametric oscillatorp. 317
Application to Plant Physiologyp. 318
Ethylene and ethane from freezing damagep. 319
Ethane and pentane from germinating peasp. 320
Acetaldehyde emission from flooded poplar treesp. 321
Summaryp. 322
Acknowledgementp. 322
Referencesp. 323
DNA Adducts as Biomarkers for Carcinogenesis Analysed by Capillary Electrophoresis and Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Detectionp. 325
Significance of DNA Adductsp. 325
Methods for Analyzing DNA Adductsp. 327
Reproducibility, Fluorescence-Quenching Phenomenon and Labeling Efficiencyp. 334
Sensitivityp. 335
Referencesp. 336
Indexp. 339
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540402602
ISBN-10: 3540402608
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 347
Published: 24th September 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.69

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