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Einstein's Relativity And Beyond : New Symmetry Approaches - Jong-Ping Hsu

Einstein's Relativity And Beyond

New Symmetry Approaches

Hardcover Published: 20th July 2000
ISBN: 9789810238889
Number Of Pages: 440

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The purposes of this book are (1) to explore and expound relativity physics and four-dimensional symmetry from the logically simplest viewpoint by making one single postulate instead of two; and (2) to indicate the simplest generalization of the Lorentz transformation in order to cope with frames with constant linear accelerations. The fundamentally new ideas of the first purpose are developed on the basis of the term paper of a Harvard physics undergraduate. They lead to an unexpected affirmative answer to the long-standing question of whether it is possible to construct a relativity theory without postulating the constancy of the speed of light and retaining only the first postulate of special relativity. This question was discussed in the early years following the discovery of special relativity by many physicists, including Ritz, Tolman, Kunz, Comstock and Pauli, all of whom obtained negative answers. Furthermore, the new theory of relativity indicates the truly universal and fundamental constants in physics, and provides a broad view of relativistic physics beyond special relativity. It substantiates the view and sheds light on the understanding that the four-dimensional symmetry framework can accommodate many different concepts of physical time, including common time and Reichenbach's general concept of time. This logically simplest viewpoint of relativity allows a natural extension of the physics of particles and fields from inertial frames to noninertial frames in which the speed of light is not constant. New predictions in physics resulting from this new viewpoint are discussed. The book is based on papers by the author and his collaborators in Physics Letters A, Nuovo Cimento B, and Physical Review A and D.

Prefacep. vii
Overviewp. x
Logical Connections of Relativity Theories with 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. xix
Introductionp. 1
Limitations of Special Relativityp. 1
Question #1: Can the theory of relativity be formulated solely on the basis of the first principle of relativity (without assuming the constancy of the speed of light)?p. 2
Question #2: Can one generalize the 4-dimensional transformation for inertial frames to non-inertial frames with a constant acceleration or rotation? In accelerated frames, the speed of light is no longer a universal constant; is the Planck constant still a universal constant?p. 4
Question #3: Within the 4-dimensional symmetry framework of special relativity, it appears to be impossible, in principle, to generalize the classical Liouville equation for many-particle systems to a Lorentz invariant Liouville equation. Can we overcome this difficulty?p. 4
Question #4: In view of the profound divergence difficulties in quantum field theory, is the spacetime 4-dimensional symmetry exact at very large momenta or short distances?p. 5
A Brief Review of Space and Timep. 9
Space and Objectsp. 9
Time and Motionp. 11
Inertial Frames of Referencesp. 11
Space and Time Transformationsp. 13
Absolute Time, Relative Time, Common Time and Taiji Timep. 14
The Nontrivial Pursuit of Earth's Absolute Motionp. 19
Newton, Classical Mechanics and Invariant Laws of Motionp. 19
Maxwell's Suggestion for Finding Absolute Motion and Michelson's Interferometerp. 22
On the Right Track--Voigt, Lorentz and Larmorp. 27
"Absolute Contraction of Length" and Lorentz's Heuristic Local Timep. 27
Exact Transformations Discovered by Larmor and Lorentzp. 29
Poincare's Contributions and the Aether (Past and Present)p. 35
A Remarkable Insight of Physical Timep. 35
Poincare's Innovative Principle of Relativityp. 37
Poincare's Theory of Relativity Based on 1 Postulate and 1 Definitionp. 39
The Concept of an "Aether" Never Fades Awayp. 46
Conformal Transformations for Inertial Frames with Absolute Velocity and "Conformal 4-Dimensional Symmetry" with the Constant Speed of Lightp. 48
Poincare's Contributions to Relativity and Symmetry Principlesp. 51
Young Einstein's Novel Creation Based on 2 Postulatesp. 61
The Power of a Young Mindp. 61
Einstein's Formulation of Special Relativity with 2 Postulatesp. 62
The Derivation of the Lorentz Transformationsp. 66
Novel Relative Properties of Space and Timep. 68
Physical Implications of Einstein's Special Relativityp. 71
Einstein and Poincarep. 72
Minkowski's 4-Dimensional Spacetime, Adjustable Clocks and Flexibility in the Concept of Timep. 80
The Completion of Special Relativity by Minkowski's Idea of 4-Dimensional Spacetimep. 80
The Collision of the Titanic and Haywire Clocksp. 82
The Primacy of the 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 83
A Flexible Concept of Timep. 83
Taiji Relativity Based Solely on 1 Principle--the First Principle of Relativityp. 87
Refreshingly Innocent Questionsp. 87
4-Dimensional Taiji Transformationsp. 88
Taiji Time and Clock Systemsp. 90
Taiji Velocity Transformationsp. 91
Comparisons with Special Relativityp. 92
Einstein's Time, Common Time, Reichenbach's Time and Unspecified Timep. 95
Discussions and Remarksp. 96
The Arbitrary Speed of Light in Taiji Relativity and the Michelson-Morley Experimentp. 100
Does the Michelson-Morley Experiment Imply a Constant and Isotropic Speed of Light?p. 100
The Michelson-Morley Experiment Supports the First Postulate of Relativityp. 103
Do Any Experiments Really Show the Universal Constancy of the Speed of Light c?p. 106
Physical Quantities Measured by Using Taiji Timep. 109
Lorentz and Poincare Invariance Without Involving a Constant Corresponding to the Speed of Lightp. 112
Group Properties of Taiji Transformationsp. 112
The Lorentz Group Without Involving the Constant Speed of Lightp. 115
The Poincare Group with Ten Generators and Without Involving the Constant Speed of Lightp. 120
Truly Universal Constants and Physical Laws Based on Taiji Relativityp. 125
Truly Universal Constants and Invariant Actionsp. 125
Atomic Structures and Doppler Shiftsp. 128
Dirac's Conjecture of Truly Fundamental Constants vs. Taiji Relativity's Results, and the Origin of the "Universal Value" c = 29979245800cm/secp. 131
The Maxwell Equations Without the Constant Speed of Light cp. 134
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativity and Dilatation of Lifetimes and Decay-Lengthsp. 138
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativityp. 138
Experimental Measurements of Dilatation for Decay-Lengths and Decay-Lifetimesp. 142
Common Relativity: A Common Time for All Observersp. 148
Why Common Time?p. 148
Two Basic Postulates of Common Relativityp. 149
The Space-Lightime Transformations and Physical Clocksp. 150
Relativity of the Speed of Light Measured by Using Common Timep. 153
The Symmetry Between Any Two Frames F and F'p. 154
The Two-Way Speed of Lightp. 155
The Inverse Transformations and the Lorentz Groupp. 157
4-Dimensional Maxwell Equations and Lorentz Force with Scalar Physical Timep. 158
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Common Relativityp. 162
New Properties in Common Relativityp. 164
Common Time and Many-Particle Systems in a 4-Dimensional Symmetry Frameworkp. 167
Problems of Relative Simultaneity for Many-Particle Systemsp. 167
Invariant Hamiltonian Dynamics and Phase Spacep. 170
The Invariant Kinetic Theory of Gasesp. 174
The Invariant Liouville Equationp. 178
Invariant Entropy, Temperature and Maxwell-Boltzmann Distributionp. 180
The Invariant Boltzmann-Vlasov Equationp. 182
Boltzmann's Transport Equation with 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 188
Boltzmann's H Theorem with 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 191
Common Relativity and Quantum Mechanicsp. 195
Fuzziness at Short Distances and the Invariant 'Genergy'p. 195
Fuzzy Quantum Mechanics with an Inherent Fuzziness in the Position of a Point Particlep. 197
A Fuzzy Point and Modified Coulomb Potential at Short Distancesp. 202
Inherent Probability for Suppression of Large Momentum Statesp. 204
Common Relativity and Fuzzy Quantum Field Theoryp. 207
Fuzzy Quantum Field Theoriesp. 207
Fuzzy Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Common Relativityp. 212
Experimental Tests of Possible Approximate 4-Dimensional Symmetry of Special Relativity at Very High Energies and Short Distancesp. 216
Common Relativity and the 3 K Cosmic Background Radiationp. 221
Implications of Non-Invariant Planck's Law of Blackbody Radiationp. 221
The Invariant Partition Functionp. 221
Covariant Thermodynamicsp. 223
Canonical Distribution and Blackbody Radiationp. 226
Question on Earth's "Absolute" Motion in the 3 K Radiationp. 228
Extended Relativity: A Weaker Postulate for the Speed of Lightp. 232
4-Dimensional Symmetry as a Guiding Principlep. 232
Edwards' Transformations with Reichenbach's Timep. 234
Difficulties of Edwards' Transformationsp. 236
Extended Relativity--A 4-Dimensional Theory with Reichenbach's Timep. 238
Two Basic Postulates of Extended Relativityp. 242
Invariant Action for a Free Particle in Extended Relativityp. 244
Extended Relativity with the Lorentz Group and Lifetime Dilatationp. 248
A Comparison of Extended Relativity and Special Relativityp. 248
An Unpassable Limit and Non-Constant Speed of Lightp. 250
The Lorentz Group and the Space-Lightime Transformationsp. 251
The Decay Rate and "Lifetime Dilatation"p. 253
Physical Implications of Extended Relativityp. 256
4-Dimensional Symmetry with a Universal 2-Way Speed of Lightp. 256
Some Experimental Implications of Extended Relativityp. 259
Doppler Shifts of Frequency and Atomic Energy Levelsp. 260
Classical Electrodynamics Based on Extended Relativityp. 263
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Extended Relativityp. 266
A Clock System for Lightime, Lifetime Dilatation and the Maximum Speed of Physical Objectsp. 270
Determination of the Parameters of General Linear Transformations by Precision Experimentsp. 273
A General Parameterization of Linear Transformationsp. 273
Determinations of Parameters by Three Experimentsp. 275
Flexibility of the Relation for t and t' in 4-Dimensional Symmetry Frameworkp. 278
Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Non-Intertial Frames Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 282
An Answer to Young Einstein's Question and Its Implicationsp. 282
Physical Time and Clocks in Linearly Accelerated Framesp. 286
Moller's Gravitational Approach to Accelerated Transformationsp. 290
A Kinematical Approach to Accelerated Transformations Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 293
Generalized Moller-Wu-Lee Transformations Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 296
Minimal Generalization of the Lorentz Transformations--the Wu Transformationsp. 300
Dynamics of Classical and Quantum Particles in Non-Inertial Frames with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 304
Classical Electrodynamics in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Framesp. 304
Quantum Particles and Dirac's Equation in a CLA Framep. 307
Stability of Atomic Levels Against Constant Accelerationsp. 309
Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Charge with Constant Linear Accelerationp. 312
Covariant Radiative Reaction Force in Special Relativity and Common Relativity, and Conservation Laws for Radiationsp. 320
Experimental Tests of Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Constant-Linear-Acceleration Framesp. 327
Tests of Physical Time in Non-Inertial Framesp. 327
Experiments of Accelerated Decay-Length Dilatation and the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 330
Experiments on Wu-Doppler Effects of Waves Emitted from Accelerated Atomsp. 333
Quantizations of Scalar, Spinor and Electromagnetic Fields in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Framesp. 336
Scalar Fields in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Framesp. 336
Quantization of Scalar Fields in CLA Framesp. 339
Quantization of Spinor Fields in CLA Framesp. 345
Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field in CLA Framesp. 351
Taiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 355
A Smooth Connection of Rotational and Inertial Framesp. 355
Taiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetryp. 356
Physical Properties of Taiji Rotational Transformationsp. 359
The Metric Tensors for Rotating Framesp. 361
The Invariant Action for Electromagnetic Fields and Charged Particles in Rotating Frames and Truly Universal Constantsp. 363
The 4-Momentum and 'Lifetime Dilatation' of a Particle at Rest in a Rotating Framep. 364
Epiloguep. 368
Noether's Theorem in Both Linearly Accelerated and Inertial Framesp. 372
Quantum Electrodynamics in Both Linearly Accelerated and Inertial Framesp. 384
De Sitter and Poincare Gauge-Invariant Fermion Lagrangians and Gravityp. 396
The Relativity of Lifetime Dilatation and an Experimental Test of "Twin Particles" Involving Linear Accelerationsp. 403
Name Indexp. 413
Subject Indexp. 415
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789810238889
ISBN-10: 9810238886
Series: Advanced Series on Theoretical Physical Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 440
Published: 20th July 2000
Country of Publication: SG
Dimensions (cm): 22.5 x 16.28  x 2.74
Weight (kg): 0.75

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