Hardcover
Published: 20th July 2000
ISBN: 9789810238889
Number Of Pages: 440
The purposes of this book are (1) to explore and expound relativity physics and four-dimensional symmetry from the logically simplest viewpoint by making one single postulate instead of two; and (2) to indicate the simplest generalization of the Lorentz transformation in order to cope with frames with constant linear accelerations. The fundamentally new ideas of the first purpose are developed on the basis of the term paper of a Harvard physics undergraduate. They lead to an unexpected affirmative answer to the long-standing question of whether it is possible to construct a relativity theory without postulating the constancy of the speed of light and retaining only the first postulate of special relativity. This question was discussed in the early years following the discovery of special relativity by many physicists, including Ritz, Tolman, Kunz, Comstock and Pauli, all of whom obtained negative answers. Furthermore, the new theory of relativity indicates the truly universal and fundamental constants in physics, and provides a broad view of relativistic physics beyond special relativity. It substantiates the view and sheds light on the understanding that the four-dimensional symmetry framework can accommodate many different concepts of physical time, including common time and Reichenbach's general concept of time. This logically simplest viewpoint of relativity allows a natural extension of the physics of particles and fields from inertial frames to noninertial frames in which the speed of light is not constant. New predictions in physics resulting from this new viewpoint are discussed. The book is based on papers by the author and his collaborators in Physics Letters A, Nuovo Cimento B, and Physical Review A and D.
Preface | p. vii |
Overview | p. x |
Logical Connections of Relativity Theories with 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. xix |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Limitations of Special Relativity | p. 1 |
Question #1: Can the theory of relativity be formulated solely on the basis of the first principle of relativity (without assuming the constancy of the speed of light)? | p. 2 |
Question #2: Can one generalize the 4-dimensional transformation for inertial frames to non-inertial frames with a constant acceleration or rotation? In accelerated frames, the speed of light is no longer a universal constant; is the Planck constant still a universal constant? | p. 4 |
Question #3: Within the 4-dimensional symmetry framework of special relativity, it appears to be impossible, in principle, to generalize the classical Liouville equation for many-particle systems to a Lorentz invariant Liouville equation. Can we overcome this difficulty? | p. 4 |
Question #4: In view of the profound divergence difficulties in quantum field theory, is the spacetime 4-dimensional symmetry exact at very large momenta or short distances? | p. 5 |
A Brief Review of Space and Time | p. 9 |
Space and Objects | p. 9 |
Time and Motion | p. 11 |
Inertial Frames of References | p. 11 |
Space and Time Transformations | p. 13 |
Absolute Time, Relative Time, Common Time and Taiji Time | p. 14 |
The Nontrivial Pursuit of Earth's Absolute Motion | p. 19 |
Newton, Classical Mechanics and Invariant Laws of Motion | p. 19 |
Maxwell's Suggestion for Finding Absolute Motion and Michelson's Interferometer | p. 22 |
On the Right Track--Voigt, Lorentz and Larmor | p. 27 |
"Absolute Contraction of Length" and Lorentz's Heuristic Local Time | p. 27 |
Exact Transformations Discovered by Larmor and Lorentz | p. 29 |
Poincare's Contributions and the Aether (Past and Present) | p. 35 |
A Remarkable Insight of Physical Time | p. 35 |
Poincare's Innovative Principle of Relativity | p. 37 |
Poincare's Theory of Relativity Based on 1 Postulate and 1 Definition | p. 39 |
The Concept of an "Aether" Never Fades Away | p. 46 |
Conformal Transformations for Inertial Frames with Absolute Velocity and "Conformal 4-Dimensional Symmetry" with the Constant Speed of Light | p. 48 |
Poincare's Contributions to Relativity and Symmetry Principles | p. 51 |
Young Einstein's Novel Creation Based on 2 Postulates | p. 61 |
The Power of a Young Mind | p. 61 |
Einstein's Formulation of Special Relativity with 2 Postulates | p. 62 |
The Derivation of the Lorentz Transformations | p. 66 |
Novel Relative Properties of Space and Time | p. 68 |
Physical Implications of Einstein's Special Relativity | p. 71 |
Einstein and Poincare | p. 72 |
Minkowski's 4-Dimensional Spacetime, Adjustable Clocks and Flexibility in the Concept of Time | p. 80 |
The Completion of Special Relativity by Minkowski's Idea of 4-Dimensional Spacetime | p. 80 |
The Collision of the Titanic and Haywire Clocks | p. 82 |
The Primacy of the 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 83 |
A Flexible Concept of Time | p. 83 |
Taiji Relativity Based Solely on 1 Principle--the First Principle of Relativity | p. 87 |
Refreshingly Innocent Questions | p. 87 |
4-Dimensional Taiji Transformations | p. 88 |
Taiji Time and Clock Systems | p. 90 |
Taiji Velocity Transformations | p. 91 |
Comparisons with Special Relativity | p. 92 |
Einstein's Time, Common Time, Reichenbach's Time and Unspecified Time | p. 95 |
Discussions and Remarks | p. 96 |
The Arbitrary Speed of Light in Taiji Relativity and the Michelson-Morley Experiment | p. 100 |
Does the Michelson-Morley Experiment Imply a Constant and Isotropic Speed of Light? | p. 100 |
The Michelson-Morley Experiment Supports the First Postulate of Relativity | p. 103 |
Do Any Experiments Really Show the Universal Constancy of the Speed of Light c? | p. 106 |
Physical Quantities Measured by Using Taiji Time | p. 109 |
Lorentz and Poincare Invariance Without Involving a Constant Corresponding to the Speed of Light | p. 112 |
Group Properties of Taiji Transformations | p. 112 |
The Lorentz Group Without Involving the Constant Speed of Light | p. 115 |
The Poincare Group with Ten Generators and Without Involving the Constant Speed of Light | p. 120 |
Truly Universal Constants and Physical Laws Based on Taiji Relativity | p. 125 |
Truly Universal Constants and Invariant Actions | p. 125 |
Atomic Structures and Doppler Shifts | p. 128 |
Dirac's Conjecture of Truly Fundamental Constants vs. Taiji Relativity's Results, and the Origin of the "Universal Value" c = 29979245800cm/sec | p. 131 |
The Maxwell Equations Without the Constant Speed of Light c | p. 134 |
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativity and Dilatation of Lifetimes and Decay-Lengths | p. 138 |
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativity | p. 138 |
Experimental Measurements of Dilatation for Decay-Lengths and Decay-Lifetimes | p. 142 |
Common Relativity: A Common Time for All Observers | p. 148 |
Why Common Time? | p. 148 |
Two Basic Postulates of Common Relativity | p. 149 |
The Space-Lightime Transformations and Physical Clocks | p. 150 |
Relativity of the Speed of Light Measured by Using Common Time | p. 153 |
The Symmetry Between Any Two Frames F and F' | p. 154 |
The Two-Way Speed of Light | p. 155 |
The Inverse Transformations and the Lorentz Group | p. 157 |
4-Dimensional Maxwell Equations and Lorentz Force with Scalar Physical Time | p. 158 |
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Common Relativity | p. 162 |
New Properties in Common Relativity | p. 164 |
Common Time and Many-Particle Systems in a 4-Dimensional Symmetry Framework | p. 167 |
Problems of Relative Simultaneity for Many-Particle Systems | p. 167 |
Invariant Hamiltonian Dynamics and Phase Space | p. 170 |
The Invariant Kinetic Theory of Gases | p. 174 |
The Invariant Liouville Equation | p. 178 |
Invariant Entropy, Temperature and Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution | p. 180 |
The Invariant Boltzmann-Vlasov Equation | p. 182 |
Boltzmann's Transport Equation with 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 188 |
Boltzmann's H Theorem with 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 191 |
Common Relativity and Quantum Mechanics | p. 195 |
Fuzziness at Short Distances and the Invariant 'Genergy' | p. 195 |
Fuzzy Quantum Mechanics with an Inherent Fuzziness in the Position of a Point Particle | p. 197 |
A Fuzzy Point and Modified Coulomb Potential at Short Distances | p. 202 |
Inherent Probability for Suppression of Large Momentum States | p. 204 |
Common Relativity and Fuzzy Quantum Field Theory | p. 207 |
Fuzzy Quantum Field Theories | p. 207 |
Fuzzy Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Common Relativity | p. 212 |
Experimental Tests of Possible Approximate 4-Dimensional Symmetry of Special Relativity at Very High Energies and Short Distances | p. 216 |
Common Relativity and the 3 K Cosmic Background Radiation | p. 221 |
Implications of Non-Invariant Planck's Law of Blackbody Radiation | p. 221 |
The Invariant Partition Function | p. 221 |
Covariant Thermodynamics | p. 223 |
Canonical Distribution and Blackbody Radiation | p. 226 |
Question on Earth's "Absolute" Motion in the 3 K Radiation | p. 228 |
Extended Relativity: A Weaker Postulate for the Speed of Light | p. 232 |
4-Dimensional Symmetry as a Guiding Principle | p. 232 |
Edwards' Transformations with Reichenbach's Time | p. 234 |
Difficulties of Edwards' Transformations | p. 236 |
Extended Relativity--A 4-Dimensional Theory with Reichenbach's Time | p. 238 |
Two Basic Postulates of Extended Relativity | p. 242 |
Invariant Action for a Free Particle in Extended Relativity | p. 244 |
Extended Relativity with the Lorentz Group and Lifetime Dilatation | p. 248 |
A Comparison of Extended Relativity and Special Relativity | p. 248 |
An Unpassable Limit and Non-Constant Speed of Light | p. 250 |
The Lorentz Group and the Space-Lightime Transformations | p. 251 |
The Decay Rate and "Lifetime Dilatation" | p. 253 |
Physical Implications of Extended Relativity | p. 256 |
4-Dimensional Symmetry with a Universal 2-Way Speed of Light | p. 256 |
Some Experimental Implications of Extended Relativity | p. 259 |
Doppler Shifts of Frequency and Atomic Energy Levels | p. 260 |
Classical Electrodynamics Based on Extended Relativity | p. 263 |
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Extended Relativity | p. 266 |
A Clock System for Lightime, Lifetime Dilatation and the Maximum Speed of Physical Objects | p. 270 |
Determination of the Parameters of General Linear Transformations by Precision Experiments | p. 273 |
A General Parameterization of Linear Transformations | p. 273 |
Determinations of Parameters by Three Experiments | p. 275 |
Flexibility of the Relation for t and t' in 4-Dimensional Symmetry Framework | p. 278 |
Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Non-Intertial Frames Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 282 |
An Answer to Young Einstein's Question and Its Implications | p. 282 |
Physical Time and Clocks in Linearly Accelerated Frames | p. 286 |
Moller's Gravitational Approach to Accelerated Transformations | p. 290 |
A Kinematical Approach to Accelerated Transformations Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 293 |
Generalized Moller-Wu-Lee Transformations Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 296 |
Minimal Generalization of the Lorentz Transformations--the Wu Transformations | p. 300 |
Dynamics of Classical and Quantum Particles in Non-Inertial Frames with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 304 |
Classical Electrodynamics in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames | p. 304 |
Quantum Particles and Dirac's Equation in a CLA Frame | p. 307 |
Stability of Atomic Levels Against Constant Accelerations | p. 309 |
Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Charge with Constant Linear Acceleration | p. 312 |
Covariant Radiative Reaction Force in Special Relativity and Common Relativity, and Conservation Laws for Radiations | p. 320 |
Experimental Tests of Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames | p. 327 |
Tests of Physical Time in Non-Inertial Frames | p. 327 |
Experiments of Accelerated Decay-Length Dilatation and the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 330 |
Experiments on Wu-Doppler Effects of Waves Emitted from Accelerated Atoms | p. 333 |
Quantizations of Scalar, Spinor and Electromagnetic Fields in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames | p. 336 |
Scalar Fields in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames | p. 336 |
Quantization of Scalar Fields in CLA Frames | p. 339 |
Quantization of Spinor Fields in CLA Frames | p. 345 |
Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field in CLA Frames | p. 351 |
Taiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 355 |
A Smooth Connection of Rotational and Inertial Frames | p. 355 |
Taiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry | p. 356 |
Physical Properties of Taiji Rotational Transformations | p. 359 |
The Metric Tensors for Rotating Frames | p. 361 |
The Invariant Action for Electromagnetic Fields and Charged Particles in Rotating Frames and Truly Universal Constants | p. 363 |
The 4-Momentum and 'Lifetime Dilatation' of a Particle at Rest in a Rotating Frame | p. 364 |
Epilogue | p. 368 |
Noether's Theorem in Both Linearly Accelerated and Inertial Frames | p. 372 |
Quantum Electrodynamics in Both Linearly Accelerated and Inertial Frames | p. 384 |
De Sitter and Poincare Gauge-Invariant Fermion Lagrangians and Gravity | p. 396 |
The Relativity of Lifetime Dilatation and an Experimental Test of "Twin Particles" Involving Linear Accelerations | p. 403 |
Name Index | p. 413 |
Subject Index | p. 415 |
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved. |
ISBN: 9789810238889
ISBN-10: 9810238886
Series: Advanced Series on Theoretical Physical Science
Audience:
Professional
Format:
Hardcover
Language:
English
Number Of Pages: 440
Published: 20th July 2000
Country of Publication: SG
Dimensions (cm): 22.5 x 16.28
x 2.74
Weight (kg): 0.75
Earn 347 Qantas Points
on this Book