An incredible season for algebraic geometry flourished in Italy between 1860, when Luigi Cremona was assigned the chair of Geometria Superiore in Bologna, and 1959, when Francesco Severi published the last volume of the treatise on algebraic systems over a surface and an algebraic variety. This century-long season has had a prominent influence on the evolution of complex algebraic geometry - both at the national and international levels - and still inspires modern research in the area. "Algebraic geometry in Italy between tradition and future" is a collection of contributions aiming at presenting some of these powerful ideas and their connection to contemporary and, if possible, future developments, such as Cremonian transformations, birational classification of high-dimensional varieties starting from Gino Fano, the life and works of Guido Castelnuovo, Francesco Severi's mathematical library, etc. The presentation is enriched by the viewpoint of various researchers of the history of mathematics, who describe the cultural milieu and tell about the bios of some of the most famous mathematicians of those times.