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X-Ray Spectroscopy in Astrophysics : Lectures Held at the Astrophysics School X Organized by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network (Eadn) in Amste :  Lectures Held at the Astrophysics School X Organized by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network (Eadn) in Amste - Jan Van Paradijs

X-Ray Spectroscopy in Astrophysics : Lectures Held at the Astrophysics School X Organized by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network (Eadn) in Amste

Lectures Held at the Astrophysics School X Organized by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network (Eadn) in Amste

By: Jan Van Paradijs (Editor), J. A. M. Bleeker (Editor)

Hardcover Published: March 1999
ISBN: 9783540655480
Number Of Pages: 532

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This volume contains a comprehensive treatment of X-ray spectroscopy, as applied in astrophysics. It is presented in the form of extensive notes of lectures given by seven distinguished scientists at the Tenth Summer School of the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network. The subjects covered are: basic line & continuum radiation processes in X-ray & gamma-ray astronomy; atomic physics of collision- & radiation-dominated plasmas; X-ray spectroscopic observations with ASCA & BeppoSAX; future X-ray spectroscopy missions; X-ray optics, & X-ray spectroscopy instrumentation. The book, which will appeal to both researchers & graduate students, is timely in view of the scheduled launches of the big X-ray observatories AXAF & XMM in 1999.

Continuum Processes in X-Ray and ¿-Ray Astronomy
Introductionp. 1
Continuum Radiation Processes from Hot and Relativistic Plasmasp. 2
Basic Radiation Conceptsp. 4
The radiation of an accelerated charged particle - J.J. Thomson's treatmentp. 5
Thomson scatteringp. 8
Radiation of an accelerated electron - improved versionp. 13
A useful relativistic invariantp. 15
Parseval's theorem and the spectral distribution of the radiation of an accelerated electronp. 16
Bremsstrahlungp. 17
Encounters between charged particlesp. 17
The spectrum and energy loss rate of bremsstrahlungp. 19
Non-relativistic and thermal bremsstrahlungp. 22
Non-relativistic and relativistic bremsstrahlung lossesp. 24
Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxiesp. 27
The properties of rich clusters of galaxiesp. 27
Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and isothermal gas spheresp. 28
X-ray observations of hot gas in clusters of galaxiesp. 32
Cooling flows in clusters of galaxiesp. 34
The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in hot intra-cluster gasp. 36
The X-ray thermal bremsstrahlung of hot intergalactic gasp. 38
The origin of the hard X-ray backgroundp. 40
Synchrotron Radiationp. 43
Motion of an electron in a uniform, static magnetic fieldp. 44
The total energy loss ratep. 45
Non-relativistic gyroradiation and cyclotron radiationp. 47
The spectral distribution of radiation from a single electron - physical argumentsp. 51
The spectrum of synchrotron radiation - improved versionp. 55
The synchrotron radiation of a power law distribution of electron energiesp. 57
Why is synchrotron radiation taken so seriously?p. 58
Synchrotron self-absorptionp. 61
Distortions of injection spectra of the electronsp. 64
The energetics of sources of synchrotron radiationp. 68
Inverse Compton Scatteringp. 73
Synchro-Compton Radiation and the Inverse Compton Catastrophep. 79
¿-Ray Processes, Photon-Photon Interactions and the Compactness Parameterp. 84
Electron-positron annihilationp. 85
Photon photon collisionsp. 87
The compactness parameterp. 88
Rolativistic Beamingp. 89
The Acceleration of Charged Particlesp. 97
Referencesp. 106
Atomic Physics of Hot Plasmas
Introductionp. 109
X-Ray Spectral Modeling of Hot Plasmasp. 110
Radiation Processes and Plasma Modelsp. 110
Spectral Modeling of Optically Thin Plasmasp. 113
General schemep. 113
Spectral fitting with SPEXp. 113
Coronal Modelp. 115
Deviations from the coronal CIE model approximationp. 117
Ionization and Recombination in a Coronal Plasmap. 125
Ionization Balancep. 125
Accuracy of atomic physics for the ionization balancep. 126
Update of the ionization balance by improved calculations for the rate coefficientsp. 127
Rate Coefficients for Ionizationp. 128
Collisional ionizationp. 128
Rate Coefficients for Recombinationp. 135
Radiative recombination; the Milne equationp. 137
Dielectronic recombinationp. 141
Formation of X-Ray Spectra in a Coronal Plasmap. 145
Line Radiationp. 146
Excitation processesp. 148
Radiative transitionsp. 157
Continuum Radiationp. 162
Diagnostics of Plasma Parametersp. 166
Electron Temperaturep. 166
Elemental Abundancesp. 167
Ionization Balance in NEIp. 167
Electron Densityp. 167
Differential Emission Measurep. 170
Diagnostics of Satellite Linesp. 172
Dielectronic recombination (DR) satellite intensityp. 173
Inner-shell excitation (IE)p. 174
Inner-shell ionization (II)p. 175
Diagnosticsp. 175
Comparison of Calculated Spectra and Accuracyp. 181
Summaryp. 182
Referencesp. 182
The X-Ray Spectral Properties of Photoionized Plasmas and Transient Plasmas
Introductionp. 189
Comptonizationp. 193
Energy transfer in a single Compton scatterp. 195
The Compton y parameterp. 198
The Kompaneets equationp. 201
Compton heating and coolingp. 208
The Compton temperaturep. 210
Spectroscopy of X-Ray Photoionized Plasmasp. 212
X-ray nebulaep. 213
The ionization parameter: ovorionization in the nebulap. 214
Differential emission measure distributionsp. 219
Radiative recombination continuap. 221
Spectral signatures of recombination kineticsp. 224
Density diagnostics in X-ray photoionized plasmasp. 229
Fluorescent K-shell emissionp. 234
Dielectronic recombination in X-ray photoionized plasmasp. 243
Transient Phases of Ionization Disequilibriump. 248
Equilibration time and ionization timep. 250
A two-stage systemp. 251
A three-stage systemp. 252
Metastable energy levels in rapidly ionizing plasmasp. 254
A worked example: transient ionization of oxygenp. 258
Referencesp. 266
X-ltay Spectroscopic Observations with ASCA and BeppoSAX
Introductionp. 269
X-ray spectroscopyp. 269
The ASCA and BeppoSAX missionsp. 270
The most prominent spectral features observable with ASCA and BeppoSAXp. 272
A Few Notes on Spectral Data Fittingp. 274
Introductionp. 274
Data binningp. 274
Model binningp. 275
Calibration uncertaintiesp. 275
Spectral deconvolutionp. 275
Statisticsp. 276
Low count ratesp. 277
Data presentationp. 278
Plasma modelsp. 278
Stellar Coronaep. 279
Introductionp. 279
Differential emission measure distribution techniquesp. 280
Temperature structurep. 280
Abundancesp. 283
Flaresp. 284
Stellar evolutionp. 285
Hot Starsp. 285
Introductionp. 285
Normal O and B starsp. 285
Luminous blue variablesp. 286
Wolf-Rayet starsp. 286
Protostars and T Tauri Starsp. 287
Introductionp. 287
X-ray emission from protostarsp. 287
X-ray emission from T Tauri starsp. 288
Cataclysmic Variablesp. 289
Introductionp. 289
Non-magnetic cataclysmic variablesp. 289
Intermediate polarsp. 290
Polarsp. 292
High-Mass X-Ray Binariesp. 293
Introductionp. 293
Vela X-lp. 293
Cyg X-3p. 295
Cen X-3p. 296
SS 433p. 296
Other casesp. 297
Low-Mass X-Ray Binariesp. 298
Introductionp. 298
4U 1626-67p. 298
Cir X-1p. 299
Supernova Remnantsp. 301
Introductionp. 301
Oxygen-rich remnants: Cas Ap. 303
Young type la remnantsp. 304
Old shell-like remnantsp. 305
Synchrotron X-ray emission from SNRsp. 307
Crab-like remnantsp. 307
Center-filled thermal remnantsp. 308
Jets interacting with SNRsp. 308
Isolated pulsarsp. 309
The Magellanic Cloud SNRsp. 310
Supernova explosions in distant galaxiesp. 311
Extended X-Ray Emission from Normal Galaxiesp. 311
The galactic ridgep. 311
The galactic centerp. 311
X-ray emission from other normal galaxiesp. 314
Seyfert 1 Galaxiesp. 315
The iron linep. 315
Warm absorbersp. 319
The power law componentp. 320
Soft componentsp. 321
Low-luminosity AGNp. 322
Broad-line radio galaxiesp. 322
Seyfert 2 Galaxiesp. 323
Introductionp. 323
NGC 1068p. 323
NGC 6552p. 324
NGC 4945p. 325
NGC 1808p. 326
Other casesp. 326
Intermediate cases: narrow-line emission galaxies and othersp. 326
Quasarsp. 328
Radio-quiet quasarsp. 328
Radio-loud quasarsp. 330
Type 2 quasarsp. 331
BL Lac objectsp. 331
Clusters of Galaxiesp. 331
Temperature distribution of the hot mediump. 332
The cooling flow and the central temperature distributionp. 333
Mass distributionp. 335
Groups of galaxiesp. 336
Cluster mergers and dynamical evolutionp. 336
Optical-depth effectsp. 337
The quest for the Hubble constantp. 338
Abundances in nearby clustersp. 338
Abundances in distant clustersp. 339
Abundance gradientsp. 339
Referencesp. 340
Future X-Ray Spectroscopy Missions
Introductionp. 347
Resolving Powers of Interest in Astrophysical X-Ray Spectroscopyp. 348
Ionization stage spectroscopyp. 348
Excitation mechanismp. 348
Density diagnosticsp. 349
Satellite line spectroscopyp. 351
Radiative recombination continuum spectroscopyp. 352
Thermal Doppler broadeningp. 353
Compton scattering effectsp. 353
Raman scatteringp. 354
Fluorescence spectroscopyp. 355
EXAFS spectroscopyp. 358
Radial-velocity spectroscopyp. 359
X-Ray Astrophysical Spectrometersp. 360
Diffractive spectrometersp. 361
Non-diffractive spectrometersp. 366
Comparison with astrophysically significant resolving powersp. 367
The Rowland circlep. 369
The High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometers on AXAFp. 373
Introductionp. 373
The high energy transmission grating spectrometerp. 375
The diffraction efficiency of an X-ray transmission gratingp. 382
The low energy transmission grating spectrometerp. 387
In Von Laue and Debye's footsteps: scattering by random fluctuations in the properties of a transmission gratingp. 390
The Reflection Grating Spectrometers on XMMp. 397
Introductionp. 397
Properties of reflection gratings, and design of a grazing-incidence reflection grating spectrometerp. 398
Implementation of the design, and actual performance of the RGSp. 404
Examplesp. 409
The Objective Crystal Spectrometer on Spectrum X/¿p. 412
The Microcalorimeter Experiment on ASTRO-Ep. 415
Introductionp. 415
Thermodynamic fluctuationsp. 416
An alternative derivationp. 423
The microcalorimeter on ASTRO-Ep. 428
The 21st Centuryp. 429
Referencesp. 432
New Developments in X-Ray Optics
Introductionp. 435
What is or are X-ray optics?p. 435
The fundamental interaction utilised in X-ray opticsp. 435
The challenge of X-ray optics in astronomyp. 436
X-Ray Dispersion Theoryp. 436
The classical electromagnetic theoryp. 436
The origin of dispersion - optical constants for X raysp. 438
The Kramers Kronig relations measuring and calculating the refraction index for X raysp. 442
EXAFsp. 444
The Reflection of X Raysp. 444
Fresnel reflectionp. 444
Reflection from multi-layersp. 446
Reflection from crystalsp. 448
Reflection and transmission gratingsp. 449
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540655480
ISBN-10: 3540655484
Series: Lecture Notes in Physics,
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 532
Published: March 1999
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 3.02
Weight (kg): 0.94