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Working Memory and Education : Educational Psychology - Susan J. Pickering

Working Memory and Education

Educational Psychology

Hardcover Published: 24th April 2006
ISBN: 9780125544658
Number Of Pages: 344

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Psychologists have been trying to understand the factors that underpin children's success and failure in different educational domains for many years. One psychological function that has been found to play an important role in educational achievement is 'working memory', the processes involved in the temporary maintenance and manipulation of information. This book provides the reader with an up-to-date review of the research that has identified how working memory relates to academic attainment in: reading, reading comprehension, arithmetic and writing, as well as looking at how children with difficulties relating to hearing impairment and attention deficits differ in terms of their working memory. Other chapters focus on how working memory is called upon in classroom settings, how working memory can be assessed, and approaches to remediation. The opening chapter of the book provides an account of working memory from the architect of the model that has dominated psychological theory for over two decades. This book is a valuable resource for psychologists, educationalists, and anyone seeking to understand more about the cognitive basis of educational achievement in children.
* It brings together in one volume information that would normally be found in different sources
* It brings together two disciplines that are highly relevant to one another (psychology and education) but not often linked directly
* Provides psychologists with a perspective on educational practice
* Provides educationalists with a well-established psychological framework for viewing educational phenomena
* It provides information about up-to-date research techniques
* It provides suggestions on how psychological theory can be translated into practice in educational settings

Contributorsp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Working Memory: An Overview
How Many Kinds of Memory?p. 3
The Phonological Loopp. 6
The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpadp. 13
The Central Executivep. 16
The Episodic Bufferp. 23
Summary Boxp. 25
Referencesp. 26
Understanding Normal and Impaired Reading Development: A Working Memory Perspective
Learning to Read: The Taskp. 34
The Role of Verbal Short-Term Memoryp. 36
Acquisition of Letter Knowledgep. 36
STM and Readingp. 39
The Role of the Central Executivep. 46
Conclusionp. 54
Summary Boxp. 55
Referencesp. 56
Children's Reading Comprehension: The Role of Working Memory in Normal and Impaired Development
Working Memory and Reading Comprehensionp. 62
Working Memory and Skilled Reading Comprehensionp. 62
Working Memory and Children's Reading Comprehensionp. 65
Developmental Studies of Working Memory and Reading Comprehensionp. 69
Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension Skill and Working Memoryp. 71
Summaryp. 74
Working Memory and Children's Specific Comprehension Skillsp. 74
Inference and Integrationp. 75
Anaphoric Processingp. 77
Use of Contextp. 79
Comprehension Monitoringp. 80
The Inter-Relations between Working Memory and Reading Comprehension Skillsp. 83
Summaryp. 84
Conclusionsp. 84
Summary Boxp. 87
Referencesp. 88
Working Memory, Executive Functioning, and Children's Mathematics
Working Memory Modelp. 94
Arithmetic and the Slave Systemsp. 96
The Central Executivep. 101
The Nature of the Central Executivep. 104
Early Development of the Central Executive and Mathematic Skillsp. 106
What Are the Implications for Education?p. 114
Summary Boxp. 116
Referencesp. 116
Working Memory and Dynamic Testing in Children with Learning Disabilities
What Are Working Memory, Learning Disabilities, and Dynamic Assessment?p. 126
Working Memoryp. 126
Learning Disabilitiesp. 127
Dynamic Assessmentp. 127
Putting the Information Togetherp. 128
Subtestsp. 129
Probingp. 133
Which Score to Use?p. 134
Psychometric Qualitiesp. 135
A Cross-Sectional Studyp. 145
What Has Our Research on Working Memory and Learning Disabilities Told Us to Date?p. 149
Conclusions and New Directionsp. 150
Summary Boxp. 152
Referencesp. 153
Deconstructing Working Memory in Developmental Disorders of Attention
The Nature of Attention and Attentional Disorderp. 158
Our Studies of the Nature of Attention and Attentional Disorderp. 159
Comparing Mainstream Schoolchildren with Good and Poor Attentionp. 159
A Further Study of Attention in Mainstream Schoolchildrenp. 163
Identifying Working Memory Deficits in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypesp. 164
Fragile X Syndrome and Other Neurodevelopmental Disordersp. 168
Attention in Young Children with Fragile X Syndrome and Williams Syndromep. 177
Conclusions on Attention, Working Memory, and Inhibitionp. 179
Educational Implications of the Findingsp. 180
Attention Weaknessp. 181
Neurodevelopmental Disordersp. 182
Summary Boxp. 183
Referencesp. 184
Working Memory and Deafness: Implications for Cognitive Development and Functioning
Defining Deafnessp. 189
Factors Affecting Working Memory Development in Deaf Childrenp. 191
Working Memory and Sign Languagep. 193
The Sublexical Structure of Signsp. 195
Working Memory for Signsp. 197
Visuo-Spatial Working Memory in Deaf Childrenp. 199
Space in Sign Languagep. 200
Consequences of Sign Language Experience for Visuo-Spatial Working Memoryp. 201
Phonological Working Memory in Deaf Childrenp. 203
Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills Deaf Childrenp. 206
Implications for Practice in Educational and Assessment Settingsp. 209
Assessing Working Memory in Deaf Childrenp. 209
Issues for Teaching and Learningp. 211
Conclusionsp. 213
Summary Boxp. 213
Referencesp. 214
Working Memory in the Classroom
Working Memory and Educational Achievement: A Reviewp. 220
Observing Working Memory in the Classroomp. 223
Profilesp. 224
Observed Memory Failuresp. 226
Other Observationsp. 230
Learning Is Based on Successp. 231
Implications for Classroom Practicep. 232
Minimizing Working Memory Failures in Learning Situationsp. 235
Ensure That the Child Can Remember the Taskp. 235
Use External Memory Aidsp. 236
Reduce Processing Loadsp. 236
Summaryp. 237
Summary Boxp. 238
Referencesp. 238
Assessment of Working Memory in Children
Assessing Working Memory in the 20th Centuryp. 242
The Digit Span Taskp. 243
Digit Span and Beyondp. 246
Assessing Working Memory Using a Battery of Testsp. 247
Selection of the WMTB-C Subtestsp. 248
What Do Each of the WMTB-C Subtests Measure?p. 250
Some Comments on the General Organization of the WMTB-Cp. 259
How Has the WMTB-C Been Used?p. 260
Research Findings from the WMTB-Cp. 261
Limitations of the WMTB-Cp. 263
A Computer-Based Working Memory Assessment Tool: The AWMAp. 265
Assessment of Working Memory and Consequences for Remediationp. 266
Summaryp. 267
Summary Boxp. 268
Referencesp. 269
Sources of Working Memory Deficits in Children and Possibilities for Remediation
Theoretical Approaches to Working Memory Remediationp. 274
Remediation of Peripheral Impairmentsp. 276
Centrally Based Processing and Remediation Approachesp. 279
Remediation Approaches in Different Working Memory Impaired Populationsp. 280
Children Who Are Intellectually Disabledp. 280
Specific Language Impairmentp. 282
Reading Disabilityp. 284
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorderp. 286
Childhood Schizophreniap. 289
Autismp. 292
Traumatic Brain Injuryp. 293
Chemotherapy and Cranial Radiation Treatmentsp. 295
Conclusionp. 296
Summary Boxp. 297
Referencesp. 298
Subject Indexp. 309
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780125544658
ISBN-10: 0125544650
Series: Educational Psychology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 344
Published: 24th April 2006
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.36
Weight (kg): 0.66