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Wind Climate in Cities : NATO Science Series E: - J.E. Cermak

Wind Climate in Cities

NATO Science Series E:

By: J.E. Cermak (Editor), Alan G. Davenport (Editor), Erich J. Plate (Editor), Domingos X. Viegas (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th November 1994
ISBN: 9780792332022
Number Of Pages: 772

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If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere.
The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies.
The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.

Preface
List of Frequently Used Symbols
The Risk of Wind Effects in Citiesp. 1
Urban Climates and Urban Climate Modelling: An Introductionp. 23
Atmospheric Boundary Layer and its Parameterizationp. 41
Scaling for Convective Boundary Layersp. 67
The Heat Island of the Urban Boundary Layer: Characteristics, Causes and Effectsp. 81
Atmospheric Flow through Groups of Buildings and Dispersion from Localised Sourcesp. 109
Physical Modelling of Atmospheric Dispersion in Complex Settingsp. 131
Analysis of Meteorological Data and Main Problems Related to the Determination of Building Exposurep. 153
Local Wind Pressures for Rectangular Buildings in Turbulent Boundary Layersp. 185
The Response of Slender Structures to Windp. 209
Wind Loads on Structures from EUROCODE I, ENV 1991-2-3p. 241
Interference Effects on Flexible Buildings and Structuresp. 259
Wind-induced Response of Buildings Arranged in a Groupp. 275
The Influence of Surroundings on Pressure Distributions around Buildingsp. 293
Wind in Cities: Effects on Pedestrians and the Dispersion of Ground Level Pollutantsp. 319
Damage to Buildings by Storms in Urban Areasp. 337
Urban Climates and Air Pollution in Small Swiss Citiesp. 353
Physical Modelling of Flow and Dispersion over Urban Areasp. 383
A Laboratory Simulation of Urban Heat - Island - Induced Circulation in a Stratified Environmentp. 405
Wind Tunnel Modelling of Convective Boundary Layersp. 431
Concentration Fluctuations in Plumes: Observations and Modelsp. 457
Point Sources in Urban Areas: Modelling of Neutral Gas Clouds with Semi-empirical Modelsp. 485
Convective Heat Losses from Buildingsp. 503
Traffic Induced Pollution: Diffusion in the Neighbourhood of Tunnels and Streetsp. 523
Traffic Induced Pollution: How to Evaluate Wind Tunnel Data for Municipal Decision Makersp. 535
Modelling of Motor Vehicle Immissions in a Street System by Combination of Lagrange Models and Surface Wind Field Simulation in Complex City Structuresp. 547
Accidental Releases of Heavy Gases in Urban Areasp. 555
Dense Gas Dispersion in Complex Settings: Part 1 - The Effect of Obstaclesp. 575
Dense Gas Dispersion in Complex Settings: Part 2 - The Effect of Topographyp. 607
Introduction to the Numerical Simulation Approaches in Wind Engineeringp. 633
Simulation of Flow past Buildings with Statistical Turbulence Modelsp. 649
Large-Eddy-Simulation of the Three-dimensional Flow around Buildingsp. 669
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Diffusion in Citiesp. 681
Application of the RAMS Numerical Model to Dispersion over Urban Areasp. 703
Simulating the Effects of Stable Stratification on Flow and Dispersion around a Cubical Buildingp. 735
Numerical Simulation of Steep Terrain Influences on Flow Patterns at the Isle of Helgolandp. 737
Reduction of Horizontal Wind Speed in a Boundary Layer with Obstaclesp. 739
Dependence of Scaling for a Convective Atmospheric Surface Layer on Size of Turbulent Disturbancesp. 741
Wind Research Climate at Texas Tech University - An Overviewp. 747
Automatic Linking of Three-dimensional Models with Different Grid Granularityp. 749
An IBL Experiment over Athens Urban Areap. 751
Wind Resistance Categorization of Buildingsp. 753
Numerical Experiments on Urban Heat-Island Intensityp. 755
PBL Observations and Measurements in the Area of Romep. 757
Subject Indexp. 759
List of Contributorsp. 765
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792332022
ISBN-10: 0792332024
Series: NATO Science Series E:
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 772
Published: 30th November 1994
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 4.29
Weight (kg): 1.29

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