Rapid growth of cities and industries in China is having a dramatic impact on the environment. To counteract further decrease of water quality of rivers, lakes and groundwater bodies, an ambitious environmental remediation programme needs to be designed and brought into action. Intensive research and development activity are required to provide tailored solutions. The articles compiled in the book describe the current situation in China with respect to surface water quality and wastewater treatment, and provide results of specific research projects, leading the way to a China-specific up-to-date water treatment technology. Discussed are lessons to be learnt from the experience made in other countries, particularly with respect to regulations and management practices.