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Water Distribution Systems Handbook : Mechanical Engineering - Larry Mays

Water Distribution Systems Handbook

Mechanical Engineering

Hardcover Published: 21st October 1999
ISBN: 9780071342131
Number Of Pages: 912

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All-in-one, state-of-the-art guide to safe drinking waterCivil engineers and anyone else involved in any way with the design, analysis, operation, maintenance or rehabilitation of water distribution systems will find practical guidance in Water Distribution SystemsHandbook. Experts selected by Handbook editor Larry W. Mays provide historical, present day, and future perspectives, as well as state-of-the-art details previously available only in specialized journals. You get a comprehensively detailed exploration of every facet of the hydraulics ofpressurized flow; piping design and pipeline systems; storage issues; reliability analysis and distribution, and more. Detailed information on the latest technology contributions and on enhancements to the EPANETmodel are included. You'll also find case studies that range from the small municipal systems found in every U.S. town, to large systems common to great urban centers like New York, London and Paris.

Contributorsp. xxv
Prefacep. xxvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxix
Introduction
Backgroundp. 1
Historical Aspects of Water Distributionp. 3
Ancient Urban Water Suppliesp. 3
Status of Water Distribution Systems in the 19th Centuryp. 9
Perspectives on Water Distribution Mains in the United Statesp. 10
Early Pipe Flow Computational Methodsp. 16
Modern Water Distribution Systemsp. 16
The Overall Systemsp. 16
System Componentsp. 20
System Operationp. 26
The Futurep. 29
Referencesp. 30
Hydraulics of Pressurized Flow
Introductionp. 1
Importance of Pipeline Systemsp. 2
Numerical Models: Basis For Pipeline Analysisp. 3
Modeling Approachp. 4
Properties of Matter (What?)p. 5
Laws of Conservation (How?)p. 6
Conservation of Massp. 7
Newton's Second Lawp. 9
System Capacity: Problems in Time and Spacep. 10
Steady Flowp. 13
Turbulent Flowp. 15
Headloss Caused by Frictionp. 16
Comparison of Loss Relationsp. 18
Local Lossesp. 21
Tractive Forcep. 22
Conveyance System Calculations: Steady Uniform Flowp. 23
Pumps: Adding Energy to the Flowp. 26
Sample Application Including Pumpsp. 28
Neworks--Linking Demand and Supplyp. 30
Quasi-Steady Flow: System Operationp. 30
Unsteady Flow: Introduction of Fluid Transientsp. 32
Importance of Waterhammerp. 32
Cause of Transientsp. 34
Physical Nature of Transient Flowp. 35
Equation of State-Wavespeed Relationsp. 37
Increment of Head-Change Relationp. 38
Transient Conditions in Valvesp. 39
Conclusionp. 42
Referencesp. 42
System Design: an Overview
Introductionp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Definitionsp. 2
Distribution System Planningp. 2
Water Demandsp. 2
Planning and Design Criteriap. 7
Peaking Coefficientsp. 9
Computer Models and System Modelingp. 9
Pipeline Preliminary Designp. 11
Alignmentp. 11
Subsurface Conflictsp. 13
Rights-of-Wayp. 13
Piping Materialsp. 13
Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP)p. 14
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipep. 18
Steel Pipep. 21
Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe (RCPP)p. 25
High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipep. 29
Asbestos-Cement Pipe (ACP)p. 31
Pipe Material Selectionp. 32
Pipeline Designp. 34
Internal Pressuresp. 34
Loads on Buried Pipep. 34
Thrust Restraintp. 38
Distribution and Transmission System Valvesp. 44
Isolation Valvesp. 44
Control Valvesp. 46
Blow-offsp. 47
Air Release and Vacuum-Relief Valvesp. 48
Referencesp. 48
Hydraulics of Water Distribution Systems
Introductionp. 1
Configuration and Components of Water Distribution Systemsp. 1
Conservation Equations for Pipe Systemsp. 3
Network Componentsp. 3
Steady-State Hydraulic Analysisp. 5
Series and Parallel Pipe Systemsp. 5
Branching Pipe Systemsp. 7
Pipe Networksp. 11
Unsteady Flow in Pipe Network Analysisp. 24
Governing Equationsp. 24
Solution Methodsp. 25
Computer Modeling of Water Distribution Systemsp. 26
Applications of Modelsp. 27
Model Calibrationp. 27
Referencesp. 28
Pump System Hydraulic Design
Pump Types and Definitionsp. 1
Pump Standardsp. 1
Pump Definitions and Terminologyp. 2
Types of Centrifugal Pumpsp. 6
Pump Hydraulicsp. 8
Pump Performance Curvesp. 8
Pipeline Hydraulics and System Curvesp. 8
Hydraulics of Valvesp. 12
Determination of Pump Operating Points-Single Pumpp. 13
Pumps Operating in Parallelp. 13
Variable-Speed Pumpsp. 13
Concept of Specific Speedp. 18
Introduction: Discharge-Specific Speedp. 18
Suction-Specific Speedp. 19
Net Positive Suction Headp. 19
Net Positive Suction Head Availablep. 19
Net Positive Suction Head Required by a Pumpp. 20
NPSH Margin or Safety Factor Considerationsp. 22
Cavitationp. 22
Corrected Pump Curvesp. 22
Hydraulic Considerations in Pump Selectionp. 27
Flow Range of Centrifugal Pumpsp. 27
Causes and Effects of Centrifugal Pumps Operating Outside Allowable Flow Rangesp. 28
Summary of Pump Selectionp. 28
Application of Pump Hydraulic Analysis to Design of Pumping Station Componentsp. 30
Pump Hydraulic Selections and Specificationsp. 30
Pipingp. 32
Implications of Hydraulic Transients in Pumping Station Designp. 35
Effect of Surge on Valve Selectionp. 35
Effect of Surge on Pipe Material Selectionp. 36
Referencesp. 36
Appendixp. 37
Hydraulic Transient Design for Pipeline Systems
Introduction to Waterhammer and Surgingp. 1
Fundamentals of Waterhammer and Surgep. 2
Definitionsp. 2
Acoustic Velocityp. 2
Joukowsky (Waterhammer) Equationp. 3
Hydraulic Characteristics of Valvesp. 4
Descriptions of Various Types of Valvesp. 5
Definition of Geometric Characteristics of Valvesp. 6
Definition of Hydraulic Performance of Valvesp. 6
Typical Geometric and Hydraulic Valve Characteristicsp. 8
Valve Operationp. 9
Hydraulic Characteristics of Pumpsp. 9
Definition of Pump Characteristicsp. 10
Homologous (Affinity) Lawsp. 10
Abnormal Pump (Four-Quadrant) Characteristicsp. 12
Representation of Pump Data for Numerical Analysisp. 15
Critical Data Required for Hydraulic Analysis of Systems with Pumpsp. 16
Surge Protection and Surge Control Devicesp. 18
Critical Parameters for Transientsp. 18
Critique of Surge Protectionp. 20
Surge Protection Control and Devicesp. 22
Design Considerationsp. 24
Negative Pressures and Water Column Separation in Networksp. 26
Time Constants for Hydraulic Systemsp. 27
Case Studiesp. 27
Case Study with One-way and Simple Surge Tanksp. 27
Case Study with Air chamberp. 28
Case Study with Air-vaccum Breakerp. 31
Referencesp. 32
Optimal Design of Water Distribution Systems
Overviewp. 1
Problem Definitionp. 1
Mathematical Formulationp. 3
Optimization Methodsp. 4
Branched Systemsp. 4
Looped Pipe Systems via Linearizationp. 5
General System Design via Nonlinear Programmingp. 7
Stochastic Search Techniquesp. 8
Applicationsp. 9
Summaryp. 12
Referencesp. 13
Water-Quality Aspects of Construction and Operations
Introductionp. 1
Disinfection of New Water Mainsp. 1
Need for Disinfectionp. 2
Disinfection Chemicalsp. 2
Disinfection Proceduresp. 2
Testing New Mainsp. 3
Main Repairsp. 3
Disposal of Highly Chlorinated Waterp. 3
Disinfection of Storage Tanksp. 4
Disinfection Procedures for Filling Tanksp. 4
Underwater Inspectionp. 5
Cross-Connection Controlp. 5
Definitionsp. 5
Cross-Connection Control Programsp. 5
Backflow Preventionp. 6
Application of Backflow Preventersp. 7
Flushing of Distribution Systemsp. 8
Backgroundp. 8
Flushing Proceduresp. 8
Directional Flushingp. 9
Alternating of Disinfectantsp. 9
Referencesp. 10
Water Quality
Introductionp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Definitionsp. 2
Water-Quality Processesp. 3
Loss of Disinfectant Residualp. 3
Growth of Disinfection By-productsp. 6
Internal Corrosionp. 6
Biofilmsp. 9
Water-Quality Monitoringp. 11
Routine Monitoringp. 11
Synoptic Monitoringp. 11
Water-Quality Modelingp. 15
Historyp. 16
Governing Equationsp. 16
Solution Methodsp. 18
Data Requirementsp. 20
Model Calibrationp. 21
Referencesp. 22
Hydraulic Design of Water Distribution Storage Tanks
Introductionp. 1
Basic Conceptsp. 1
Equalizationp. 2
Pressure Maintenancep. 2
Fire Storagep. 2
Emergency Storagep. 2
Energy Consumptionp. 3
Water Qualityp. 3
Hydraulic Transient Controlp. 3
Aestheticsp. 4
Design Issuesp. 4
Floating Versus Pumped Storagep. 4
Ground Versus Elevated Tankp. 5
Effective Versus Total Storagep. 6
Private Versus Utility Owned Tanksp. 6
Pressurized Tanksp. 6
Locationp. 7
Clearwell Storagep. 7
Tanks Downstream of the Demand Centerp. 8
Multiple Tanks in the Pressure Zonep. 8
Multiple Pressure-Zone Systemsp. 9
Other Siting Considerationsp. 9
Tank Levelsp. 9
Setting Tank Overflow Levelsp. 9
Identifying Tank Service Areasp. 10
Identifying Pressure Zonesp. 10
Tank Volumep. 11
Trade-offs in Tank Volume Designp. 11
Standards-Driven Sizingp. 12
Functional Designp. 12
Staging Requirementsp. 16
Useful Dead Storagep. 17
Other Design Considerationsp. 18
Altitude Valvesp. 18
Cathodic Protection and Coatingsp. 18
Overflows and Ventsp. 18
Referencesp. 19
Quality of Water in Storage
Introductionp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Definitionsp. 2
Water Quality Problemsp. 2
Chemical Problemsp. 2
Microbiological Problemsp. 5
Physical Problemsp. 7
Mixing and Aging in Storage Facilitiesp. 8
Ideal Flow Regimesp. 8
Jet Mixingp. 9
Mixing Timesp. 9
Stratificationp. 10
Agingp. 11
Monitoring and Samplingp. 12
Routine Monitoringp. 12
Sampling Methods and Equipmentp. 17
Monitoring Frequency and Location of Samplesp. 18
Special Studiesp. 20
Modelingp. 22
Scale Modelsp. 22
Computational Fluid Dynamicsp. 25
Systems Modelsp. 28
Design and Operational Issuesp. 30
Water-Quality Design Objectivesp. 30
Modes of Operation: Simultaneous Inflow-Outflow Versus Fill and Drawp. 30
Flow Regimes: Complete Mix Versus Plug Flowp. 30
Stratification in Reservoirsp. 33
Inspection and Maintenance Issuesp. 34
Inspectionsp. 34
Maintenancep. 36
Referencesp. 36
Computer Models/Epanet
Introductionp. 1
Need for Computer Modelsp. 1
Uses of Computer Modelsp. 2
History of Computer Modelsp. 2
Use of a Computer Modelp. 3
Network Representationp. 3
Compilation of Datap. 4
Estimation of Demandp. 6
Operating Characteristicsp. 7
Reaction-Rate Informationp. 7
Model Calibrationp. 8
Computer Model Internalsp. 8
Input Processingp. 9
Topological Processingp. 9
Hydraulic Solution Algorithmsp. 9
Linear-Equation Solverp. 11
Extended-Period Solverp. 11
Water-Quality Algorithmsp. 12
Output Processingp. 12
Epanet Programp. 13
Backgroundp. 13
Program Featuresp. 14
User Interfacep. 15
Solver Modulep. 17
Programmer's Toolkitp. 20
Conclusionp. 20
Referencesp. 21
Water Quality Modeling-Case Studies
Introductionp. 1
Design of Distribution Systems in The United Statesp. 2
Water Quality in Networksp. 3
Hydraulic and Water-Quality Modelsp. 4
Steady-State-Water Quality Modelsp. 5
Dynamic Water-Quality Modelsp. 5
Early Applications of Water-Quality Modelingp. 6
North Penn Studyp. 6
South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authorityp. 9
Case Study of Cabool, Missourip. 22
Evolution of Water Quality Modelingp. 22
Modeling Propagation of Contaminantsp. 23
Case Study of the North Marin Water Districtp. 24
Complement to the North Marin studyp. 34
Waterborne Outbreak in Gideon, Missourip. 36
Current Trends in Water-Quality Modelingp. 44
Study in Cholet, Francep. 44
Case Study in Southington, Connecticutp. 44
Mixing in Storage Tanksp. 45
Summary and Conclusionsp. 45
Referencesp. 46
Calibration of Hydraulic Network Models
Introductionp. 1
Network Characterizationp. 1
Network Data Requirementsp. 1
Model Parametersp. 3
Identify the Intended use of the Modelp. 3
Determine Estimates of the Model Parametersp. 3
Pipe Roughness Valuesp. 4
Distribution of Nodal Demandsp. 9
Collect Calibration Datap. 12
Fire-Flow Testsp. 12
Telemetric Datap. 13
Water-Quality Datap. 14
Evaluate the Results of the Modelp. 14
Perform A Macro-Level Calibration of the Modelp. 15
Perform A Sensitivity Analysisp. 16
Perform A Macro-Level Calibration of the Modelp. 16
Analytical Approachesp. 17
Simulation Approachesp. 17
Optimization Approachesp. 17
Future Trendsp. 21
Summary And Conclusionp. 21
Referencesp. 21
Operation of Water Distribution Systems
Introductionp. 1
How Systems Are Operatedp. 2
Typical Operating Indexesp. 2
Operating Criteriap. 3
Water Quality and Operationsp. 4
Emergency Operationsp. 4
Monitoring of System Performance With Scada Systemsp. 5
Anatomy of a Scada Systemp. 6
Data Archivingp. 9
Control of Water Distribution Systemp. 9
Control Strategiesp. 10
Centralized Versus Local Controlp. 11
Linking of Scada Systems with Analysis and Control Modelsp. 11
Data Requirements of Analysis and Control Modelsp. 12
Establishment of the Linkp. 13
Use of Central Databases in System Controlp. 15
What the Future Holdsp. 16
Referencesp. 16
Optimization Models for Operations
Introductionp. 1
Formulations for Minimizing Energy Cost Minimizationp. 3
Energy Managementp. 3
Management Strategiesp. 3
Management Modelsp. 5
Optimization Modelsp. 9
Summary and Conclusionsp. 14
Formulations to Satisfy Water Qualityp. 16
Solution Methods and Applications For Water-Quality Purposesp. 19
Mathematical Programming Approachp. 19
Simulated Annealing Approachp. 22
Development of Cost Functionp. 24
Sample Applicationp. 26
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Two Methodsp. 28
Optimal Scheduling of Booster Disinfectionp. 28
Background 1: Linear Superpositionp. 33
Background 2: Dynamic Network Water-Quality Models in a Planning Contextp. 34
Optimal Scheduling of Booster-Station Dosages as Linear Pogramming Problemp. 36
Optimal Location and Scheduling of Booster-Station Dosage as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Problemp. 36
Optimal Location of Booster Stations as a Maximum Set-Covering Problemp. 38
Solution of the Optimization Modelsp. 40
Available Softwarep. 41
Summaryp. 42
Referencesp. 43
Maintenance and Rehabilitation/Replacement
Introductionp. 1
Maintenance and Rehabilitation Problemsp. 1
Preview of the Chapterp. 2
Unaccounted-For Waterp. 2
Indicators for Unaccounted-for Waterp. 3
Understanding the Causes of Unaccounted-for Waterp. 3
Components of Unaccounted-for Waterp. 5
Summaryp. 9
Pipe Breaksp. 10
Corrosionp. 10
External Loadsp. 11
Poor Tappingp. 13
Pressure-Related Breaksp. 13
Repair Versus Replacementp. 14
Hydraulic Carrying Capacityp. 16
Diagnosis of Pressure Problemsp. 16
Correction of Pressure Problemsp. 17
Pipe Rehabilitation Technologyp. 20
Evaluation of Pipe Rehabilitationp. 21
Maintenance Information Systemsp. 21
System Mappingp. 22
System Databasep. 22
Geographic Information Systemsp. 22
Maintenance Management Systemsp. 23
SCADA Systemsp. 23
Referencesp. 24
Reliability Analysis For Design
Failure Modes For Water Distribution Systemsp. 1
Need and Justificationp. 1
Definitions of Distribution System Repairsp. 3
Failure Modesp. 4
Reliability: Indexes and Approachesp. 5
Practical Aspects of Providing Reliabilityp. 6
Improving the Reliability of Water Distribution Systemsp. 6
Analyzing the Effect of Valving on System Reliabilityp. 10
Component Reliability Analysisp. 15
Failure Density, Failure Rate, and Mean Time To Failurep. 15
Availability and Unavailabilityp. 19
Review of Models Fore Reliability of Water Distribution Systemsp. 21
Reliability of a System Failurep. 21
Failure Modesp. 22
Approaches to the Assessment of Reliabilityp. 25
Models and Techniques for Assessing Network Reliabilityp. 29
Overview of Reliability Measuresp. 40
Observationsp. 42
Measure of Link Importancep. 43
Referencesp. 49
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780071342131
ISBN-10: 0071342133
Series: Mechanical Engineering
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 912
Published: 21st October 1999
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.7 x 16.0  x 4.0
Weight (kg): 1.14
Edition Number: 1