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Walls Built On Sand : Migration, Exclusion, And Society In Kuwait - Anh Nga Longva

Walls Built On Sand

Migration, Exclusion, And Society In Kuwait

Paperback Published: 1st December 1997
ISBN: 9780813337852
Number Of Pages: 284

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When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, the sight of tens of thousands of non-Kuwaiti Arabs, Indians, East Asians, and Westerners fleeing or trapped under occupation made the outside world suddenly aware of a singular fact of Kuwaiti society?that Kuwaitis are an absolute minority in their own country. Basing her analysis on extensive fieldwork and archival research, the author examines the social dimension of labor migration to Kuwait since independence in 1961, exploring how the presence of over one million foreign workers has influenced the way Kuwaitis organize their lives and perceive themselves. In particular, Longva looks at the relations between two sharply differentiated social categories and the politics of exclusion that have allowed Kuwaitis to protect their rights and privileges as citizens against infringement by the huge influx of expatriates. Longva examines the little-studied system of kafala, or sponsorship, under which all foreign workers enter and reside in the country, showing how it has become the most critical source of power for native Kuwaitis vis-�is immigrants. She also addresses aspects of ethnicity and class, describes the life of expatriates, and looks at developments in gender relations and the role of women in building the national identity in the context of migration and modernization.

List of Tables and Figurep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Map of Kuwaitp. xiii
Map of Kuwait City and Suburbsp. xiv
Introductionp. 1
Kuwait in the Literaturep. 1
The Concept of the Plural Societyp. 3
Migration and the Nation-Statep. 7
Pluralism and Integration: A Research Programp. 8
How to Study Unbounded Worlds?p. 10
Fieldwork and Problems Encounteredp. 12
Methodologyp. 14
Notesp. 17
Kuwait Through History: A Tradition of Migration and Open Networksp. 19
Pearl Diving, Sea Trade, and Caravansp. 19
Politics and Society in Pre-Oil Kuwaitp. 22
Oil: Prosperity and Its Implicationsp. 25
Widening the Networks: The New Labor Migrationp. 31
A Multi-Ethnic, Multi-Cultural Societyp. 34
Notesp. 38
The Politics of Exclusionp. 43
Putting Exclusion in Placep. 43
The Delineation of Ethnic and Social Categoriesp. 44
The First Dichotomy: Kuwaitis--Non-Kuwaitisp. 45
The Second Dichotomy: Arabs--Non-Arabsp. 54
The Third Dichotomy: Muslims--Non-Muslimsp. 56
Exclusion and the Conceptualization of Workp. 59
The Division of Labor According to the Logic of Exclusionp. 60
Notesp. 72
The Structure of Dominance: The Sponsorship Systemp. 77
The Kafalap. 78
Power: The View from Outside, Above, and Belowp. 80
The Kafala in the Private Sector ("Visa No. 18")p. 84
The Kafala in Business Partnership ("Visa No. 19")p. 89
The Kafala in the Domestic Sector ("Visa No. 20")p. 91
The Power of the Kafeelp. 93
The Kafala: A Control Mechanism by the Civil Societyp. 100
Power and Powerlessness: The Kafala Seen by Kuwaitisp. 102
Notesp. 109
Conceptualizing "Us" and "Them" Through Everyday Practicep. 113
Group Differentiation and Group Identificationp. 114
Signaling Identity Through the Dress Codep. 116
Reading the Signalsp. 125
Ethnic Identities and Gender Identitiesp. 128
Ethnic Stereotypesp. 132
Opting Out: The Never-Never Land of Western Identityp. 135
The Definition and Perceptions of "Us" and "Them,"p. 138
Ethnicity and Classp. 140
Notesp. 145
Expatriate Life: Liminality and an "Ad Hoc" Way of Lifep. 149
A Migrant Careerp. 149
Human Agency and International Labor Migrationp. 153
A Population of Like-Minded Individualsp. 156
Life is a Place Elsewherep. 159
The Social Content of Liminal Timep. 162
Time: The Making and Unmaking of Relationshipsp. 166
Time, Space, and Migrationp. 172
Time in Cultural Analysisp. 174
An "Ad Hoc" Way of Lifep. 177
Notesp. 184
Gender Relations, Ethnicity, and the National Projectp. 187
"Change" and Kuwaiti Womenp. 190
Subverting Spatial Confinement: The Hijaab and the Carp. 193
Reproducing Social Confinement (I): The Constraints of Ethnic Stratificationp. 197
Reproducing Social Confinement (II): The Discourse of Motherhoodp. 203
"Citizenship" versus "Hareem,"p. 209
Gendered Citizenship, Ethnicity, and Classp. 210
Women as Nation-Buildersp. 214
Change and Continuity: The Shifting Sands of Modernityp. 217
Notesp. 220
Pluralism and Integrationp. 223
Integration in Plural Societiesp. 225
Integration, Coercion, and Material Interestsp. 226
What Kind of Commonality?p. 228
Subjective Integration: The Role of Experiencep. 233
Towards an Anthropology of Deterritorializationp. 238
Notesp. 242
Postscriptp. 243
Notesp. 245
Bibliographyp. 246
Indexp. 257
About the Book and Authorp. 266
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780813337852
ISBN-10: 0813337852
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 284
Published: 1st December 1997
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.43
Edition Number: 1

Earn 243 Qantas Points
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