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Violence Through Environmental Discrimination : Causes, Rwanda Arena, and Conflict Model - Gunther Baechler

Violence Through Environmental Discrimination

Causes, Rwanda Arena, and Conflict Model

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Published: 30th November 1998
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The degradation of renewables, both land and freshwater, worldwide leads to conflict over access and distribution of these resources. However, not all conflicts become violent. Environmentally-caused violence is hardly found in relations between states. Today, mainly in developing countries, there is a correlation between environmental degradation and violent conflicts. This synthesis of 40 case studies indicates, there are different causal pathways of current violent conflicts and wars that can be traced to the environmental roots of the conflict. Rwanda is used as an example to demonstrate the interaction of ethnic, social, political and ecological factors. Whereas most studies in this field focus on classical security issues, the author here puts an emphasis on growing structural heterogeneity in agricultural societies which tend to discriminate chiefly against those rural producers who are the victims of bad resource allocations, unequal resource distribution, high dependence on natural capital, and bad state performance. One major conclusion to be discussed among scholars, teachers, and advanced students and to be taken seriously by professionals in international organizations is the following: competing land tenure systems, unclear property rights, large-scale farming, and nationalizing land by discriminating against small-holders, pastoralists and the landless. This provides a considerable potential for conflict and, thus, contributes to unsustainable resource use, social unrest, and political instability.

Prefacep. xi
Summaryp. xv
Introduction: The Transformation of Society-Nature Relationshipp. 1
Environmental Conflicts: Historical and Contemporary Phenomenap. 3
Society-Nature Relationshipsp. 3
Historical Evidencep. 7
Development of Maldevelopmentp. 9
Socioecological Heterogeneityp. 11
Landscape as Threatened Life-Support Systemp. 14
Water as Part of the Life-Support Systemp. 15
Soil as Part of the Life-Support Systemp. 16
Summary and Overviewp. 17
Discussion: State of the Artp. 21
Founex Report on Environmental Change and Underdevelopmentp. 22
Linkage between Environmental Change, Security, and Conflictp. 24
Linkages between Environment and Securityp. 25
Discussion of the Causal Linkagep. 26
Methodological Dilemmas in the Study of Causal Linkagep. 30
Evaluation of Taxonomies and Typologiesp. 30
A Conflict Story Can Be Told from Different Anglesp. 35
[[Someone's Cow Ate Someone Else's Crop]]p. 37
[[The Effects of Persistent Drought...]]p. 40
Causation in Complex Politico-Ecological Systemsp. 41
Causal Relationship between Independent and Dependent Variablep. 44
Action as a Result of Two Filtersp. 47
To Sort out Causes by Attributing Specific Roles to Themp. 50
Research Strategyp. 52
Correlations: Environment, Maldevelopment, and Violent Conflictp. 55
Human Development Correlated with Violent Conflicts and Warsp. 56
War Register and HDI-County Rankp. 57
Interpretation of the Tables and Findingsp. 58
Violent Conflicts and Wars in Arid Lowlandsp. 64
Arid Zones, Poverty, and Conflictp. 64
Violent Conflicts and Wars in Mountainsp. 72
Cultural Aspects of Violence in Mountains and Highlandsp. 73
Patterns of Conflicts in Mountainsp. 80
Conclusionsp. 82
Typology: Types of Conflicts and the Role of the Environmentp. 85
Environmentally Caused Violence: A Phenomenon of Developing and Transitional Societies (Hypothesis One)p. 86
Ethnopolitical Conflicts (Type AI)p. 89
Center-Periphery Conflicts (Type AII)p. 91
Internal Migration Conflicts (Type AIII)p. 92
Cross-Border Migration Conflicts (Type BIV)p. 94
Demographically Caused Migration Conflicts (Type BV)p. 95
International Water Conflicts (Type CVI)p. 96
Global Environmental Conflicts (Type CVII)p. 98
Conflict Types: Conclusionsp. 99
Inevitable Situations and the Lack of Regulatory Mechanisms (Hypothesis Two)p. 101
Inevitable Situationsp. 102
Lack of Regulatory Mechanismsp. 103
Instrumentalizing the Environmental Problemp. 105
Opportunities to Build up Organizations and Find Alliesp. 106
Context of an Ongoing Armed Conflictp. 107
The Role of the Environment as a Cause of Conflictp. 107
Reasonp. 108
Triggerp. 109
Targetp. 109
Channelp. 110
Catalystp. 111
The Intensity of Environmental Conflictsp. 111
Case Study: Why Environmental Discrimination Caused Violence on the 'Mille Collines'p. 113
Propositionsp. 115
Causes and Their Rolesp. 117
Reason I: Ethnogenesis as Hierarchyp. 117
Reason II: Social and Environmental Discriminationp. 129
Channeling: Increasing Conflict Potential before the Revolution of 1959/60p. 143
Targeting: Freedom from Oppression versus Eliminationp. 152
Development without Democratizationp. 157
Catalysts: The Invasion of the FPR and the Arusha Peace Agreementp. 158
Trigger: Plane Crash and First Massacresp. 162
Preservation of Power at All Costs: Conclusionsp. 162
Model: Causal Relationship between Environmental Transformation and Violent Conflictp. 167
Model Building and Constraintsp. 168
Explain a Lot with Very Littlep. 168
Prerequisites of a Modelp. 170
Propositions and Hypothesesp. 175
Environmental Conflict Modelp. 179
Indicatorsp. 181
Empirical Evidence: Six Area Studies and Six Control Cases to Check the Modelp. 187
Environmental Discriminationp. 189
Ethnopolitical Conflictsp. 189
Center-Periphery Conflictsp. 192
Internal Migration Conflictsp. 193
Cross-Border Migration Conflictsp. 196
Demographically Caused Conflictsp. 199
International Water Conflictsp. 201
Dependence on Natural Capital: The Cases of Mexico, Botswana, and South Africap. 204
Marginalization and Group Cohesion: The Cases of Mexico, Botswana, and South Africap. 206
Lack of Regulatory Mechanismsp. 209
Population Dynamicsp. 211
State Instability and Poor Performancep. 212
Complex External Influencesp. 217
What Makes a Difference?p. 219
Outlook: Conflict Potential, Sustainable Development, and Environmental Securityp. 221
Multiple Causal Roles Conceptp. 222
Crisis Triangle: Maldevelopment, Transformation, Conflictp. 226
Rural Transformationp. 226
Ethnopoliticized Environmental Conflict in the Rwanda Arenap. 229
Population Dynamics and Migrationp. 231
Force or Cooperation?p. 232
Sustainable Development and Environmental Securityp. 233
The Development/Security Prismp. 234
What Can Be Learned from the Borana Solution?p. 239
Appendix
Tablesp. 243
Abbreviationsp. 272
List of Tablesp. 274
List of Figuresp. 275
Glossaryp. 277
Bibliographyp. 287
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792354956
ISBN-10: 0792354958
Series: Social Indicators Research Series
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 321
Published: 30th November 1998
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 26.04 x 17.15  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.7