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Vibration : Fundamentals and Practice, Second Edition - Clarence W. De Silva

Vibration

Fundamentals and Practice, Second Edition

Hardcover Published: 1st August 2006
ISBN: 9780849319877
Number Of Pages: 1036

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Maintaining the outstanding features and practical approach that led the bestselling first edition to become a standard textbook in engineering classrooms worldwide, Clarence de Silva's Vibration: Fundamentals and Practice, Second Edition remains a solid instructional tool for modeling, analyzing, simulating, measuring, monitoring, testing, controlling, and designing for vibration in engineering systems. It condenses the author's distinguished and extensive experience into an easy-to-use, highly practical text that prepares students for real problems in a variety of engineering fields.
What's New in the Second Edition?
A new chapter on human response to vibration, with practical considerations
Expanded and updated material on vibration monitoring and diagnosis
Enhanced section on vibration control, updated with the latest techniques and methodologies
New worked examples and end-of-chapter problems.
Incorporates software tools, including LabVIEW(TM), SIMULINK(R), MATLAB(R), the LabVIEW Sound and Vibration Toolbox, and the MATLAB Control Systems Toolbox
Enhanced worked examples and new solutions using MATLAB and SIMULINK
The new chapter on human response to vibration examines representation of vibration detection and perception by humans as well as specifications and regulatory guidelines for human vibration environments.
Remaining an indispensable text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, Vibration: Fundamentals and Practice, Second Edition builds a unique and in-depth understanding of vibration on a sound framework of practical tools and applications.

Vibration Engineeringp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Study of Vibrationp. 3
Application Areasp. 7
History of Vibrationp. 12
Organization of the Bookp. 13
Problemsp. 17
Time Responsep. 19
Introductionp. 19
Undamped Oscillatorp. 20
Energy Storage Elementsp. 21
Inertia (m)p. 21
Spring (k)p. 22
Gravitation Potential Energyp. 23
Method of Conservation of Energyp. 24
System 1 (Translatory)p. 24
System 2 (Rotatory)p. 25
System 3 (Flexural)p. 25
System 4 (Pendulous)p. 26
System 5 (Liquid Slosh)p. 26
System 6 (Electrical)p. 27
Capacitorp. 28
Inductorp. 28
Free Responsep. 29
Heavy Springsp. 34
Kinetic Energy Equivalencep. 35
Oscillations in Fluid Systemsp. 40
Damped Simple Oscillatorp. 43
Case 1: Underdamped Motion ([zeta] [less than] 1)p. 45
Initial Conditionsp. 46
Logarithmic Decrement Methodp. 46
Case 2: Overdamped Motion ([zeta] [greater than] 1)p. 47
Case 3: Critically Damped Motion ([zeta] = 1)p. 48
Justification for the Trial Solutionp. 49
First-Order Systemp. 49
Second-Order Systemp. 49
Repeated Rootsp. 49
Stability and Speed of Responsep. 50
Response Using MATLABp. 54
Forced Responsep. 56
Response Analysis Methodsp. 59
Impulse Responsep. 60
Riddle of Zero-Initial Conditionsp. 62
Step Responsep. 62
Use of SIMULINKp. 64
Response to a Support Motionp. 66
Use of SIMULINKp. 68
Forced Response Using Convolution Integralp. 68
Convolution Integralp. 68
Liebnitz's Rulep. 71
Problemsp. 72
Frequency Responsep. 97
Introductionp. 97
Response to Harmonic Excitationsp. 97
Response Characteristicsp. 99
Case 1: Undamped Oscillator with Excitation Frequency[not equal to] Natural Frequencyp. 99
Case 2: Undamped Oscillator with [omega] = [omega][subscript n] (Resonant Condition)p. 100
Case 3: Damped Oscillatorp. 101
Measurement of Damping Ratio (Q-Factor Method)p. 110
Transform Techniquesp. 116
Transfer Functionp. 117
Frequency-Response Function (Frequency Transfer Function)p. 118
Response of a Damped Oscillatorp. 121
Impulse Responsep. 121
Step Responsep. 122
Transfer Function Matrixp. 123
Mechanical Impedance Approachp. 130
Interconnection Lawsp. 132
Transmissibility Functionsp. 137
Force Transmissibilityp. 137
Motion Transmissibilityp. 137
System Suspended on a Rigid Base (Force Transmissibility)p. 138
System with Support Motion (Motion Transmissibility)p. 139
General Casep. 140
Peak Values of Frequency-Response Functionsp. 142
Receptance Methodp. 146
Application of Receptancep. 148
Undamped Simple Oscillatorp. 148
Dynamic Absorberp. 149
Problemsp. 152
Vibration Signal Analysisp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Frequency Spectrump. 169
Frequencyp. 170
Amplitude Spectrump. 171
Phase Anglep. 171
Phasor Representation of Harmonic Signalsp. 172
RMS Amplitude Spectrump. 173
One-Sided and Two-Sided Spectrap. 174
Complex Spectrump. 175
Signal Typesp. 175
Fourier Analysisp. 179
Fourier Integral Transformp. 180
Fourier Series Expansionp. 182
Discrete Fourier Transformp. 183
Aliasing Distortionp. 185
Sampling Theoremp. 186
Aliasing Distortion in the Time Domainp. 188
Anti-Aliasing Filterp. 188
Further Illustration of Aliasingp. 188
Random Vibration Analysisp. 191
Ergodic Random Signalsp. 192
Correlation and Spectral Densityp. 194
Parseval's Theoremp. 195
Coherencep. 196
Frequency-Response Function Measurementp. 197
Time Delay in Signal Transmissionp. 200
Leakage (Truncation Error)p. 201
Window Functionsp. 201
Window Selectionp. 203
Cepstrump. 203
Other Topics of Signal Analysisp. 205
Bandwidthp. 205
Transmission Level of a Band-Pass Filterp. 205
Effective Noise Bandwidthp. 206
Half-Power (or 3 dB) Bandwidthp. 206
Fourier Analysis Bandwidthp. 206
Resolution in Digital Fourier Resultsp. 207
Overlapped Processingp. 208
Order Analysisp. 210
Speed Spectral Mapp. 210
Time Spectral Mapp. 211
Order Trackingp. 211
Machine Monitoring and Fault Diagnosisp. 212
Methods of Machine Monitoringp. 212
Vibration Analysis Approachp. 213
Problemsp. 215
Modal Analysisp. 223
Introductionp. 223
Degrees of Freedom and Independent Coordinatesp. 224
Nonholonomic Constraintsp. 224
System Representationp. 226
Stiffness and Flexibility Matricesp. 228
Inertia Matrixp. 231
Direct Approach for Equations of Motionp. 232
Energy Method Using Lagrange's Equationsp. 233
Modal Vibrationsp. 235
Orthogonality of Natural Modesp. 240
Modal Mass and Normalized Modal Vectorsp. 241
Static Modes and Rigid Body Modesp. 241
Static Modesp. 241
Linear Independence of Modal Vectorsp. 242
Modal Stiffness and Normalized Modal Vectorsp. 242
Rigid Body Modesp. 243
Modal Matrixp. 248
Configuration Space and State Spacep. 249
State Vectorp. 249
Other Modal Formulationsp. 250
Nonsymmetric Modal Formulationp. 250
Transformed Symmetric Modal Formulationp. 251
Forced Vibrationp. 257
Damped Systemsp. 265
Proportional Dampingp. 266
State-Space Approachp. 275
Modal Analysisp. 276
Mode Shapes of Nonoscillatory Systemsp. 277
Mode Shapes of Oscillatory Systemsp. 277
Problemsp. 280
Distributed-Parameter Systemsp. 301
Introductionp. 301
Transverse Vibration of Cablesp. 302
Wave Equationp. 304
General (Modal) Solutionp. 305
Cable with Fixed Endsp. 306
Orthogonality of Natural Modesp. 309
Application of Initial Conditionsp. 313
Longitudinal Vibrations of Rodsp. 317
Equation of Motionp. 317
Boundary Conditionsp. 318
Torsional Vibration of Shaftsp. 322
Shaft with Circular Cross Sectionp. 322
Torsional Vibration of Noncircular Shaftsp. 325
Flexural Vibration of Beamsp. 330
Governing Equation for Thin Beamsp. 331
Moment-Deflection Relationp. 331
Rotatory Dynamics (Equilibrium)p. 332
Transverse Dynamicsp. 333
Modal Analysisp. 333
Boundary Conditionsp. 336
Free Vibration of a Simply Supported Beamp. 336
Normalization of Mode Shape Functionsp. 338
Initial Conditionsp. 339
Orthogonality of Mode Shapesp. 339
Case of Variable Cross Sectionp. 340
Forced Bending Vibrationp. 342
Bending Vibration of Beams with Axial Loadsp. 356
Bending Vibration of Thick Beamsp. 358
Use of the Energy Approachp. 360
Orthogonality with Inertial Boundary Conditionsp. 362
Rotatory Inertiap. 363
Damped Continuous Systemsp. 364
Modal Analysis of Damped Beamsp. 365
Vibration of Membranes and Platesp. 367
Transverse Vibration of Membranesp. 368
Rectangular Membrane with Fixed Edgesp. 369
Transverse Vibration of Thin Platesp. 369
Rectangular Plate with Simply Supported Edgesp. 371
Problemsp. 372
Vibration Dampingp. 385
Introductionp. 385
Types of Dampingp. 386
Material (Internal) Dampingp. 386
Viscoelastic Dampingp. 388
Hysteretic Dampingp. 388
Structural Dampingp. 390
Fluid Dampingp. 392
Representation of Damping in Vibration Analysisp. 394
Equivalent Viscous Dampingp. 396
Complex Stiffnessp. 397
Loss Factorp. 402
Measurement of Dampingp. 406
Logarithmic Decrement Methodp. 406
Step-Response Methodp. 408
Hysteresis-Loop Methodp. 410
Magnification-Factor Methodp. 414
Bandwidth Methodp. 416
General Remarksp. 418
Interface Dampingp. 420
Friction in Rotational Interfacesp. 426
Instabilityp. 427
Problemsp. 427
Vibration Instrumentationp. 441
Introductionp. 441
Vibration Excitersp. 443
Shaker Selectionp. 447
Force Ratingp. 447
Power Ratingp. 448
Stroke Ratingp. 448
Hydraulic Shakersp. 450
Inertial Shakersp. 450
Electromagnetic Shakersp. 453
Dynamics of Electromagnetic Shakersp. 454
Transient Excitersp. 456
Control Systemp. 457
Components of a Shaker Controllerp. 459
Compressorp. 459
Equalizer (Spectrum Shaper)p. 459
Tracking Filterp. 459
Excitation Controller (Amplitude Servo-Monitor)p. 460
Signal-Generating Equipmentp. 460
Oscillatorsp. 460
Random-Signal Generatorsp. 462
Tape Playersp. 462
Data Processingp. 463
Performance Specificationp. 464
Parameters for Performance Specificationp. 465
Time-Domain Specificationsp. 465
Frequency-Domain Specificationsp. 466
Linearityp. 467
Instrument Ratingsp. 468
Rating Parametersp. 469
Accuracy and Precisionp. 470
Motion Sensors and Transducersp. 472
Potentiometerp. 472
Potentiometer Resolutionp. 473
Optical Potentiometerp. 474
Variable-Inductance Transducersp. 475
Mutual-Induction Transducersp. 476
Linear-Variable Differential Transformerp. 476
Signal Conditioningp. 478
Mutual-Induction Proximity Sensorp. 483
Self-induction Transducersp. 484
Permanent-Magnet Transducersp. 485
AC Permanent-Magnet Tachometerp. 487
AC Induction Tachometerp. 488
Eddy Current Transducersp. 489
Variable-Capacitance Transducersp. 490
Capacitive Displacement Sensorsp. 491
Capacitive Angular Velocity Sensorp. 493
Capacitance Bridge Circuitp. 493
Piezoelectric Transducersp. 495
Sensitivityp. 496
Piezoelectric Accelerometerp. 497
Charge Amplifierp. 499
Torque, Force, and Other Sensorsp. 502
Strain Gage Sensorsp. 502
Equations for Strain Gage Measurementsp. 502
Bridge Sensitivityp. 505
Bridge Constantp. 506
Calibration Constantp. 508
Data Acquisitionp. 511
Accuracy Considerationsp. 513
Semiconductor Strain Gagesp. 513
Force and Torque Sensorsp. 516
Strain Gage Torque Sensorsp. 516
Deflection Torque Sensorsp. 519
Variable-Reluctance Torque Sensorp. 521
Reaction Torque Sensorsp. 521
Miscellaneous Sensorsp. 522
Stroboscopep. 522
Fiber-Optic Sensors and Lasersp. 523
Fiber-Optic Gyroscopep. 525
Laser Doppler Interferometerp. 525
Ultrasonic Sensorsp. 527
Gyroscopic Sensorsp. 528
Problemsp. 529
Signal Conditioning and Modificationp. 545
Introductionp. 545
Amplifiersp. 545
Operational Amplifierp. 546
Use of Feedback in Operational Amplifierp. 548
Voltage, Current, and Power Amplifiersp. 549
Charge Amplifiersp. 552
Instrumentation Amplifiersp. 552
Differential Amplifierp. 553
Common Modep. 554
Amplifier Performance Ratingsp. 555
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)p. 556
Component Interconnectionp. 557
Impedance Characteristicsp. 557
Cascade Connection of Devicesp. 559
AC-Coupled Amplifiersp. 560
Analog Filtersp. 560
Passive Filters and Active Filtersp. 562
Number of Polesp. 563
Low-Pass Filtersp. 563
Low-Pass Butterworth Filterp. 567
High-Pass Filtersp. 569
Band-Pass Filtersp. 572
Resonance-Type Band-Pass Filtersp. 574
Band-Reject Filtersp. 577
Modulators and Demodulatorsp. 578
Amplitude Modulationp. 581
Modulation Theoremp. 582
Side Frequencies and Side Bandsp. 584
Application of Amplitude Modulationp. 584
Fault Detection and Diagnosisp. 585
Demodulationp. 586
Analog-Digital Conversionp. 587
Digital-to-Analog Conversionp. 588
DAC Error Sourcesp. 588
Analog-to-Digital Conversionp. 590
ADC Performance Characteristicsp. 590
Resolution and Quantization Errorp. 590
Monotonicity, Nonlinearity, and Offset Errorp. 591
ADC Conversion Ratep. 591
Sample-and-Hold(S/H) Circuitryp. 592
Digital Filtersp. 593
Software and Hardware Implementationsp. 594
Bridge Circuitsp. 594
Wheatstone Bridgep. 595
Constant-Current Bridgep. 597
Bridge Amplifiersp. 598
Half-Bridge Circuitsp. 598
Impedance Bridgesp. 599
Owen Bridgep. 600
Wien-Bridge Oscillatorp. 602
Linearizing Devicesp. 602
Linearization by Softwarep. 605
Linearization by Hardware Logicp. 605
Analog Linearizing Circuitryp. 606
Offsetting Circuitryp. 607
Proportional-Output Circuitryp. 608
Curve-Shaping Circuitryp. 610
Miscellaneous Signal-Modification Circuitryp. 611
Phase Shiftersp. 611
Voltage-to-Frequency Converters (VFC)p. 613
Frequency-to-Voltage Converter (FVC)p. 615
Voltage-to-Current Converters (VCC)p. 616
Peak-Hold Circuitsp. 617
Signal Analyzers and Display Devicesp. 618
Signal Analyzersp. 619
Oscilloscopesp. 621
Triggeringp. 622
Lissajous Patternsp. 622
Digital Oscilloscopesp. 624
Problemsp. 626
Vibration Testing and Human Responsep. 635
Introductionp. 635
Representation of a Vibration Environmentp. 638
Test Signalsp. 638
Stochastic versus Deterministic Signalsp. 638
Deterministic Signal Representationp. 639
Single-Frequency Signalsp. 639
Multifrequency Signalsp. 643
Stochastic Signal Representationp. 644
Ergodic Random Signalsp. 645
Stationary Random Signalsp. 645
Independent and Uncorrelated Signalsp. 646
Transmission of Random Excitationsp. 647
Frequency-Domain Representationsp. 650
Fourier Spectrum Methodp. 650
Power Spectral Density Methodp. 650
Response Spectrump. 652
Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Spectrap. 653
Response-Spectra Plotting Paperp. 635
Zero-Period Accelerationp. 657
Uses of Response Spectrap. 659
Comparison of Various Representationsp. 660
Pretest Proceduresp. 661
Purpose of Testingp. 662
Service Functionsp. 664
Active Equipmentp. 665
Passive Equipmentp. 665
Functional Testingp. 665
Information Acquisitionp. 666
Interface Detailsp. 667
Effect of Neglecting Interface Dynamicsp. 668
Other Effects of Interfacep. 671
Test-Program Planningp. 671
Testing of Cabinet-Mounted Equipmentp. 674
Pretest Inspectionp. 675
Testing Proceduresp. 677
Resonance Searchp. 677
Methods of Determining Frequency-Response Functionsp. 678
Fourier Transform Methodp. 678
Spectral Density Methodp. 678
Harmonic Excitation Methodp. 678
Resonance-Search Test Methodsp. 678
Hammer (Bump) Test and Drop Testp. 679
Pluck Testp. 680
Shaker Testsp. 682
Mechanical Agingp. 682
Equivalence for Mechanical Agingp. 683
Excitation-Intensity Equivalencep. 684
Dynamic-Excitation Equivalencep. 684
Cumulative Damage Theoryp. 685
TRS Generationp. 685
Instrument Calibrationp. 686
Test-Object Mountingp. 686
Test-Input Considerationsp. 687
Test Nomenclaturep. 688
Testing with Uncorrelated Excitationsp. 690
Symmetrical Rectilinear Testingp. 691
Geometry versus Dynamicsp. 691
Some Limitationsp. 691
Testing Black Boxesp. 692
Phasing of Excitationsp. 693
Testing a Gray or White Boxp. 694
Overtesting in Multitest Sequencesp. 694
Some Practical Informationp. 694
Random Vibration Test Examplep. 695
Vibration Shakers and Control Systemsp. 695
Vibration Excitations on Humansp. 695
Excitation Characteristicsp. 699
Human Response to Vibrationp. 700
Vibration Perceptionp. 701
Frequency Weighting Curvep. 701
Iso-Perception Curvesp. 703
Detection Threshold Curvep. 703
Regulation of Human Vibrationp. 704
Acceptable Vibration Levels in Buildingsp. 704
Whole-Body Vibrationp. 705
Hand-Arm Vibrationp. 707
Problemsp. 708
Experimental Modal Analysisp. 717
Introductionp. 717
Frequency-Domain Formulationp. 718
Transfer Function Matrixp. 719
Principle of Reciprocityp. 722
Experimental Model Developmentp. 728
Extraction of the Time-Domain Modelp. 729
Curve Fitting of Transfer Functionsp. 733
Problem Identificationp. 734
Single-DoF and Multi-DoF Techniquesp. 734
Single-DoF Parameter Extraction in the Frequency Domainp. 734
Circle-Fit Methodp. 734
Peak Picking Methodp. 738
Multi-DoF Curve Fittingp. 740
Formulation of the Methodp. 740
A Comment on Static Modes and Rigid-Body Modesp. 742
Residue Extractionp. 743
Laboratory Experimentsp. 744
Lumped-Parameter Systemp. 744
Frequency Domain Testp. 746
Time-Domain Testsp. 746
Distributed-Parameter Systemp. 747
Commercial EMA Systemsp. 749
System Configurationp. 750
FFT Analysis Optionsp. 750
Modal Analysis Componentsp. 751
Problemsp. 753
Vibration Design and Controlp. 761
Introductionp. 761
Shock and Vibrationp. 762
Specification of Vibration Limitsp. 762
Peak-Level Specificationp. 763
RMS Value Specificationp. 763
Frequency-Domain Specificationp. 763
Vibration Isolationp. 765
Design Considerationsp. 774
Vibration Isolation of Flexible Systemsp. 778
Balancing of Rotating Machineryp. 780
Static Balancingp. 782
Balancing Approachp. 783
Complex Number/Vector Approachp. 784
Dynamic (Two-Plane) Balancingp. 787
Experimental Procedure of Balancingp. 792
Balancing of Reciprocating Machinesp. 794
Single-Cylinder Enginep. 794
Balancing the Inertia Load of the Pistonp. 797
Multicylinder Enginesp. 798
Two-Cylinder Enginep. 798
Six-Cylinder Enginep. 799
Combustion or Pressure Loadp. 802
Whirling of Shaftsp. 803
Equations of Motionp. 804
Steady-State Whirlingp. 806
Self-Excited Vibrationsp. 809
Design through Modal Testingp. 810
Component Modificationp. 811
Substructuringp. 815
Passive Control of Vibrationp. 817
Undamped Vibration Absorberp. 819
Damped Vibration Absorberp. 824
Optimal Absorber Designp. 827
Vibration Dampersp. 831
Active Control of Vibrationp. 835
Active Control Systemp. 835
Control Techniquesp. 837
State-Space Modelsp. 837
Position and Velocity Feedbackp. 840
Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Controlp. 841
Modal Controlp. 846
Active Control of Saw Blade Vibrationp. 848
Control of Beam Vibrationsp. 851
State-Space Model of Beam Dynamicsp. 853
Control Problemp. 854
Use of Linear Dampersp. 856
Design Examplep. 857
Problemsp. 862
Appendices
Dynamic Models and Analogiesp. 879
Newtonian and Lagrangian Mechanicsp. 899
Review of Linear Algebrap. 919
Laplace Transformp. 939
Digital Fourier Analysis and FFTp. 951
Software Toolsp. 967
Reliability Considerations for Multicomponent Unitsp. 991
References and Further Readingp. 999
Indexp. 1007
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780849319877
ISBN-10: 0849319870
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 1036
Published: 1st August 2006
Publisher: CRC PR INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.76 x 18.64  x 5.97
Weight (kg): 1.96
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: New edition