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Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia under the Impact of Human Activities - Nikolai Kharin

Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia under the Impact of Human Activities

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Published: 28th February 2002
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Yoque en el campo he nacido dig6 que mis cantos son para los unos sonidos, y para otros intencion. H. Hernandes - Martin Fierro. The period of active influence of the people on desert environments in Central Asia counts more than 2,000 years. It includes several stages of the social and the economic development of human society - from primitive culture of hunters to developed modern society with great changes of envi­ ronment and "nature remaking".Heritage of the past is one of the main causes of land degradation in Central Asia.So, only historical analysis of relations between the man and the desertcould give infor­ mation for awareness of desertification. What an idea have the people about the desert? In the mind of many people "desert" is identified with a sterile, lifeless and gloom land unsuitable for life. The mass media, specially the cinema sup­ ports this idea. Very popular subject of many films is the death of travelers in the desert from thirst. Eventhe names of hot winds (the "gibly" inSahara, the "samum" inArabian desertand the "afganets" inCentral Asia) fill the minds of peoplewith horror. There are many legends about armies buried inthe sand,aboutflourishing oases and towns covered with sand drifts. Inthese legends the truth is mixed with fiction. But as known, "the truth isstronger than fiction".

Introductionp. 1
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD)p. 1
Global extension of desertificationp. 2
Up-to-date situationp. 2
Change of biological diversityp. 4
Silphiump. 4
Degradation of the drylands of Asiap. 5
Classification of the drylands of Asiap. 5
Desertification of the drylands of Asiap. 5
Social sequences of desertificationp. 5
Capital punishment for ecological crimesp. 9
Physical Environment and Agricultural Developmentp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Climate and desertificationp. 12
Specific climatic features of Central Asiap. 13
Drought and desertificationp. 14
Soilsp. 18
Zonal classification of soilsp. 18
Takyr and takyr-like soilsp. 18
Hydromorphic soilsp. 18
Soils of the irrigation zonep. 19
Soils of vertical zonationp. 19
Vegetationp. 19
Classification of vegetationsp. 19
Vegetation of sandy desertsp. 20
Vegetation of clay desertsp. 20
Vegetation of gypsum desertsp. 20
Vegetation of salt desertsp. 21
Vegetation of loess desertsp. 21
Tugai vegetationp. 21
Mountain vegetationp. 21
Livestock raizingp. 22
Crop productionp. 25
Irrigation agriculturep. 25
Dryland agriculturep. 28
Pollution of environmentp. 28
Summary and conclusionp. 30
Historical Interaction of Desert and Societyp. 33
The first ecological catastrophe in Central Asiap. 33
Land use and impact of war during the Middle Agesp. 37
Land reclamation, ecology and social life in Russian Turkestanp. 40
Russian conquest of Central Asiap. 41
Crop productionp. 42
Traditional system of animal husbandryp. 45
Forestryp. 47
Khiva and Bukharap. 49
Aborigines and newcomers in the desertp. 49
People of the pastp. 49
A new commonwealth of "the Socialist nations"p. 54
We shall even control the drought!p. 56
The project of The Main Turkmen Canalp. 56
Transfer of river flow from Siberiap. 58
The dam of the Kara-Bogaz-Golp. 60
Conclusionp. 63
Political, Economic and Social Impact of Land Degradation During the Soviet Periodp. 65
Large leap - a Central Asian versionp. 65
Agrarian revolution in Central Asiap. 65
Rooting out the survivals of the past from the people's mindp. 66
Improvement of public health carep. 68
Cadre determines all!p. 69
Change of social ecological conditions in rural areap. 71
"Pripiska" and its role in land degradationp. 73
Mass falsification of information, or "pripiska"p. 73
Cotton affair in Uzbekistanp. 74
Pripiska and corruption in other republics of Central Asiap. 75
Conclusionp. 76
Methodology of Desertification Assessment and Mappingp. 77
The concept and criteria of assessmentp. 77
Conceptual approach for desertification assessmentp. 77
Scales for desertification assessmentp. 78
Criteria for assessment of vegetation degradationp. 81
Criteria for assessment of wind erosionp. 81
Criteria for assessment of water erosionp. 82
Criteria for assessment of water logging rangelandsp. 82
Criteria of assessment of soil salinizationp. 82
Criteria for assessment of inherent risk of desertificationp. 83
Remote sensing indicators of desertificationp. 83
Spectral reflectance of desert landscapes and optimal seasons of remote sensingp. 83
Specifications of remote sensing for desertification monitoringp. 85
Compilation of desertification map of Turkmenistanp. 87
Desertification map of Turkmenistanp. 87
Database on desertificationp. 88
Use of NOAA/AVHRR data to study desertificationp. 90
Multistage desertification monitoringp. 92
Conclusionp. 94
Status of Degraded Arid Landsp. 95
Change of biodiversity under the impact of desertificationp. 95
Change of plant species compositionp. 95
Plant species from The Red Data Bookp. 97
Degradation of forestsp. 98
Classification and exploitation of forests in Central Asiap. 98
Volume of nuts and other products stored in forestsp. 99
Protective and sanitary functions of forestsp. 102
Degradation of forests during the Soviet periodp. 103
Degradation of desert rangelandsp. 104
The main causes of desert rangeland degradationp. 104
Vegetation degradation around watering pointsp. 105
Regional features of rangeland degradationp. 105
Soil degradationp. 107
Environmental changes in the Aral Sea zone Wind erosionp. 107
Wind erosionp. 107
Water erosionp. 108
Waterlogging rangelandsp. 108
Salinization of irrigated farmlandsp. 108
Change of desert environment along the Karakum Canal bordering areap. 110
Summary and conclusionp. 113
Change of Wildlifep. 115
Animals from "The Red Data Book"p. 115
Protection of animals in the reservesp. 118
Dzheiranp. 118
Saigakp. 119
Kulanp. 120
Other species of wildlife stand also in need of protectionp. 120
Rodentsp. 120
Snakesp. 121
Fishesp. 121
Hunting and poachingp. 122
Conclusionp. 124
Accumulated Ecological Problems in New Independent Countries of Central Asia After 1991p. 125
Sovereignty, poverty and refugeesp. 125
Desertification as one of Accumulated Ecological Problems (AEP)p. 125
New sovereign states of Central Asiap. 125
Corruption and shady economyp. 126
Refugees and displaced personsp. 128
Scarcity of water resourcesp. 130
Water resources of Central Asiap. 130
Projected water demandp. 130
Worsening ecological and social conditions in the areas affected by desertificationp. 133
Fall of living standardp. 133
Desertification and human healthp. 133
Tedzhen case studyp. 135
Enormous economic and social damage caused by desertificationp. 136
Conclusionp. 140
Convention to Combat Desertification - A Gleam of Hope at the End of the Tunnelp. 141
A concept for rehabilitation of degraded desert landsp. 141
Regeneration of forestsp. 143
New approaches and arrangementsp. 144
Sustainable developmentp. 144
What is better--top-down approach or bottom-up approach?p. 145
Capacity buildingp. 146
Promotion of new sources of income in agriculturep. 147
National Action Program to Combat Desertification (NAPCD) in Turkmenistanp. 148
Measures to combat desertification at national levelp. 148
Development of National Monitoring Systemp. 148
Strategy of utilization of water resourcesp. 148
Conservation of biodiversityp. 149
Melioration of irrigated farm landsp. 150
Range management and improvementp. 150
Conservation of forestsp. 150
Stabilization of moving sandsp. 150
Creation of enabling environment for implementation of NAPCDp. 152
International cooperationp. 156
Summary and conclusionp. 157
Synthesis and Conclusionp. 159
Lessons of the pastp. 159
Up--to--date situationp. 160
The requirements of future activities in desertification controlp. 161
Glossary of Local and Special Termsp. 163
Referencesp. 171
Indexp. 181
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402003974
ISBN-10: 1402003978
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 182
Published: 28th February 2002
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 27.9 x 21.0  x 1.4
Weight (kg): 1.34