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Use of Biomarkers in Assessing Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Pollutants : Language of Science - Curtis C. Travis

Use of Biomarkers in Assessing Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Pollutants

Language of Science

By: Curtis C. Travis (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th September 1993
ISBN: 9780306445392
Number Of Pages: 286

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Biological markers (biomarkers) are useful tools for understanding the nature and extent of human exposure and risk from environmental toxicants. Biomarkers are classified into three basic categories: exposure, effect, or susceptibility. A marker of exposure is the product of the interaction between a target cell or molecule and a foreign substance (NAS, 1989). These markers can be used to determine the biologically effective dose necessary to elicit a particular physiological change in an organism. A marker of effect is a biochemical or physiological change in an organism that can predict the onset of adverse health effects resulting from a given exposure. Lastly, markers of susceptibility act as indicators of an inherent or acquired tendency of an organism to experience an adverse health effect (NAS, 1989). These markers are already used to detect a variety of diseases and show great promise for developing a better understanding of the mechanicisms of disease. Additionally, biomarkers can be used to establish a more rational basis for quantitative risk extrapolation between species, as weIl as to obtain more precise estimates of the time of critical exposure. These markers can also prove helpful in identifying potentially damaging exposures before the onset of adverse health effects. Biomarkers serve as a valuable exposure assessment tool because they take into account exposure from all routes and integrate exposure from all sources. They have the potential to yield better risk estimates than current monitoring and modeling protocols. In lune 1992, Dr. Travis and Dr.

Introduction to Molecular Dosimetryp. 1
The 4-Aminobiphenyl Hemoglobin Adduct as a Biomarker of Effectp. 9
Current Research on Hemoglobin Adducts and Cancer Risks: An Overviewp. 17
Use of Biomarkers in Quantitative Risk Assessmentp. 31
Measurement of Mutation Spectra as a Molecular Dosimeterp. 47
Biomarkers as Molecular Dosimeters of Genotoxic Substancesp. 53
Public Health Assessment as a Tool in Identifying Human Exposure to Environmental Pollutantsp. 63
The Suitability of the Mosses Sphagna as Quantitative Indicators of Heavy Metal Levels in Urban Atmospheresp. 67
Epidemiologic Approach for the Assessment of Acceptable Exposure Levels to Cadmium and Manganesep. 73
Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Organic Compoundsp. 83
Stress Proteins as Biomarkers of Toxicityp. 95
Significance of Serum Ferritin Concentrations in Lung Cancer and Its Relation with Cellular Immunityp. 101
Outcome Based Biomarkers of Female Reproductionp. 105
Factors Determining the Exposure of the Embryo and Fetus: Species Variation of Teratogenesis and Placental Transfer of Xenobioticsp. 121
Assessing Reproductive Risks with Biological Markersp. 137
Behavioral Biomarkers to Identify Neurotoxic Effectsp. 159
Mechanisms of and Biomarkers for Acute and Delayed Neuropathic Effects of Organophosphorus Estersp. 169
Mechanisms and Biomarkers of Solvent-Induced Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Effectsp. 183
Biomarkers of Immunotoxicologyp. 201
Serum Biomarkers in the On-Site Evaluation of Suspected Cancer Risk in Humans Residing Near Hazardous Waste Sitesp. 209
The Use of Biomarkers in the Evaluation of Exposure and Health at a Hazardous Waste Sitep. 227
State of the Art - Ecological Biomarkersp. 237
Detection of Genotoxicity of Water and Air Pollutants Using Tradescantia (Spiderwort) Plantsp. 247
Animals and Plants as Bioindicators of Radionuclide Contamination in Forest Ecosystemsp. 255
Tumor Markers in Effusions: A Comparative Study of Tumor Marker Levels in Sera and Effusionsp. 265
Evaluation of Ceruloplasmin Level in Women with Breast Disease: Preliminary Resultsp. 273
Contributorsp. 279
Indexp. 283
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306445392
ISBN-10: 0306445395
Series: Language of Science
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 286
Published: 30th September 1993
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.17 x 17.58  x 2.29
Weight (kg): 0.58

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