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Understanding Intelligence : Bradford Books - Rolf Pfeifer

Understanding Intelligence

Bradford Books

Paperback Published: 27th July 2001
ISBN: 9780262661256
Number Of Pages: 700
For Ages: 18+ years old

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By the mid-1980s researchers from artificial intelligence, computer science, brain and cognitive science, and psychology realized that the idea of computers as intelligent machines was inappropriate. The brain does not run "programs"; it does something entirely different. But what? Evolutionary theory says that the brain has evolved not to do mathematical proofs but to control our behavior, to ensure our survival. Researchers now agree that intelligence always manifests itself in behavior--thus it is behavior that we must understand. An exciting new field has grown around the study of behavior-based intelligence, also known as embodied cognitive science, "new AI," and "behavior-based AI." This book provides a systematic introduction to this new way of thinking. After discussing concepts and approaches such as subsumption architecture, Braitenberg vehicles, evolutionary robotics, artificial life, self-organization, and learning, the authors derive a set of principles and a coherent framework for the study of naturally and artificially intelligent systems, or autonomous agents. This framework is based on a synthetic methodology whose goal is understanding by designing and building. The book includes all the background material required to understand the principles underlying intelligence, as well as enough detailed information on intelligent robotics and simulated agents so readers can begin experiments and projects on their own. The reader is guided through a series of case studies that illustrate the design principles of embodied cognitive science.

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"Understanding Intelligence is a comprehensive and highly readable introduction to embodied cognitive science." - Arthur B. Markman, Science

Prefacep. xi
The Study of Intelligence--Foundations and Issuesp. 1
The Study of Intelligencep. 3
Characterizing Intelligencep. 6
Studying Intelligence: The Synthetic Approachp. 21
Foundations of Classical Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Sciencep. 35
Cognitive Science: Preliminariesp. 35
The Cognitivistic Paradigmp. 39
An Architecture for an Intelligent Agentp. 47
The Fundamental Problems of Classical Al and Cognitive Sciencep. 59
Real Worlds versus Virtual Worldsp. 59
Some Well-Known Problems with Classical Systemsp. 63
The Fundamental Problems of Classical Alp. 64
Remedies and Alternativesp. 74
A Framework for Embodied Cognitive Sciencep. 79
Embodied Cognitive Science: Basic Conceptsp. 81
Complete Autonomous Agentsp. 82
Biological and Artificial Agentsp. 99
Designing for Emergence--Logic-Based and Embodied Systemsp. 111
Explaining Behaviorp. 127
Neural Networks for Adaptive Behaviorp. 139
From Biological to Artificial Neural Networksp. 140
The Four or Five Basicsp. 143
Distributed Adaptive Controlp. 152
Types of Neural Networksp. 167
Beyond Information Processing: A Polemic Digressionp. 172
Approaches and Agent Examplesp. 179
Braitenberg Vehiclesp. 181
Motivationp. 181
The Fourteen Vehiclesp. 182
Segmentation of Behavior and the Extended Braitenberg Architecturep. 195
The Subsumption Architecturep. 199
Behavior-Based Roboticsp. 201
Designing a Subsumption-Based Robotp. 202
Examples of Subsumption-Based Architecturesp. 206
Conclusions: The Subsumption Approach to Designing Intelligent Systemsp. 219
Artificial Evolution and Artificial Lifep. 227
Basic Principlesp. 230
An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms: Evolving a Neural Controller for an Autonomous Agentp. 234
Examples of Artificially Evolved Agentsp. 240
Toward Biological Plausibility: Cell Growth from Genome-Based Cell-to-Cell Communicationp. 250
Real Robots, Evolution of Hardware, and Simulationp. 255
Artificial Life: Additional Examplesp. 260
Methodological Issues and Conclusionsp. 270
Other Approachesp. 277
The Dynamical Systems Approachp. 277
Behavioral Economicsp. 283
Schema-Based Approachesp. 292
Principles of Intelligent Systemsp. 297
Design Principles of Autonomous Agentsp. 299
The Nature of the Design Principlesp. 299
Design Principles for Autonomous Agentsp. 302
Design Principles in Contextp. 318
The Principle of Parallel, Loosely Coupled Processesp. 327
Control Architectures for Autonomous Agentsp. 330
Traditional Views on Control Architecturesp. 337
Parallel, Decentralized Approachesp. 345
Case Study: A Self-Sufficient Garbage Collectorp. 357
The Principle of Sensory-Motor Coordinationp. 377
Categorization: Traditional Approachesp. 378
The Sensory-Motor Coordination Approachp. 392
Case Study: The SMC Agentsp. 407
Application: Active Visionp. 431
The Principles of Cheap Design, Redundancy, and Ecological Balancep. 435
The Principle of Cheap Designp. 435
The Redundancy Principlep. 446
The Principle of Ecological Balancep. 455
The Value Principlep. 467
Value Systemsp. 469
Self-Organizationp. 475
Learning in Autonomous Agentsp. 485
Human Memory: A Case Studyp. 503
Memory Definedp. 503
Problems of Classical Notions of Memoryp. 506
The Frame-of-Reference Problem in Memory Researchp. 511
The Alternativesp. 516
Implications for Memory Researchp. 530
Design and Evaluationp. 535
Agent Design Considerationsp. 537
Preliminary Design Considerationsp. 539
Agent Designp. 542
Putting It All Together: Control Architecturesp. 562
Summary and a Fundamental Issuep. 569
Evaluationp. 577
General Introductionp. 578
Performing Agent Experimentsp. 588
Measuring Behaviorp. 593
Future Directionsp. 605
Theory, Technology, and Applicationsp. 607
Hard Problemsp. 607
Theory and Technologyp. 612
Applicationsp. 618
Intelligence Revisitedp. 631
Elements of a Theory of Intelligencep. 631
Implications for Societyp. 638
Glossaryp. 645
Referencesp. 659
Author Indexp. 677
Subject Indexp. 681
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262661256
ISBN-10: 026266125X
Series: Bradford Books
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 700
Published: 27th July 2001
Publisher: MIT Press Ltd
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51  x 4.45
Weight (kg): 1.36

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