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Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders : Theory, Evidence and Practice - Vivien Prior

Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders

Theory, Evidence and Practice

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Published: 15th August 2006
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This book offers a thorough examination and discussion of the evidence on attachment, its influence on development, and attachment disorders.

In Part One, the authors outline attachment theory, the influence of sensitive and insensitive caregiving and the applicability of attachment theory across cultures. Part Two presents the various instruments used to assess attachment and caregiving. Part Three outlines the influence of attachment security on the child's functioning. Part Four examines the poorly understood phenomenon of attachment disorder. Presenting the evidence of scientific research, the authors reveal how attachment disorders may be properly conceptualised. Referring to some of the wilder claims made about attachment disorder, they argue for a disciplined, scientific approach that is grounded in both attachment theory and the evidence base. The final part is an overview of evidence-based interventions designed to help individuals form secure attachments.

Summarising the existing knowledge base in accessible language, this is a comprehensive reference book for professionals including social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, teachers, lawyers and researchers. Foster and adoptive parents, indeed all parents, and students will also find it of interest.

Attachment theory is currently a hot topic, so it is essential for all psychology enthusiasts and clinicians to have at least some understanding of its theories and applications. However, most texts are complicated to grasp, with intricate theories enmeshed from multiple directions. This book changes that. Here the authors provide an easily digestible introduction to attachment of theory; assessments of attachment and care giving; the impact of attachment security; attachment disorders and treatments. What was of particular interest to me was the chapter on the theories' validity across cultures - a very relevant aspect considering the growing multicultural society of the UK. It draws on the research evidence to unite the more conclusive findings on attachment. This guides the clinician and student toward an understanding of this enlightening approach to explaining, in part, why we are to a large degree a product of our environment. -- The Psychologist
In my opinion, this book will be valuable not only for mental health professionals but also useful for pediatricians and family physicians who want to update their knowledge in attachment and its disorders. -- The J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
It should be a standard recommended text on clinical psychology programmes as well as other training programmes for health and social care staff working with families. -- Clinical Psychology Forum
Overall, this is a useful and authoritative resource. It achieves a great deal, and will be a most useful purchase for libraries and for those directly concerned with these issues as they affect children and young people. -- British Journal of Social Work
Prior (behavioural and brain sciences, Institute of Child Health, London) and Glaser, a consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist at Great Ormond Street Hospital for children in London, discuss attachment disorders. They consider theory, the assessment of attachment patterns, and disturbances with an evidence-based approach. Topics of note include parenting, multiple caregivers, the applicability of theory across different cultures, functioning, and interventions and therapeutic approaches. The book is aimed at social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, teachers, lawyers and researchers. Both author and subject indexes are provided. All books in this series are based on the work of FOCUS, a multidisciplinary project at the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Research and Training Unit. -- Book News
Summarising the existing knowledge base in accessible language, this is a comprehensive reference book for professionals including social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, teachers, lawyers and researchers. Foster and adoptive parents, in deed all parents, and students will also find it of interest. -- Handicap Info
The FOCUS project of the Royal College of Psychiatrists to promote and disseminate information about evidence-based research and practice underpinning child and adolescent mental health services is driven by, and values good quality scientific endeavour and thinking. -- Young Minds Magazine
The work of John Bowlby's attachment theory continues to develop and grow with this new volume... The authors give a comprehensive insight into the latest research, assessment and significance of attachment theories cross- culturally. -- Community Care
This book is timely. The outline of attachment is clearly presented, the classification system follows well, and understanding how the attachments evolve and the factors involved is helpful. I particularly liked the section on different cultures and what has been explored across differing parenting styles and social groupings - its well worth reading. Anyone planning to undertake a research project or clinical study will find this book extremely helpful when trying to select the best available method. -- British Journal of Psychiatry
This is a text that is packed with research evidence and, therefore, will serve as a useful reference tool. The links to practice are clear, and practitioners will be enabled to work towards a more evidence-based approach in their work with children and their caregivers. -- Practice: Social Work in Action
Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders is a text applicable to large audiences, and proves a succinct traverse into the field of attachment disorders. -- EABP Newsletter
With the current emphasis on the education of children in public care, and multi-agency approaches to these children, this is a recommended text for the service bookshelf and for local authority educational psychologists with an interest in the area. It is also pertinent for independent educational psychologists involved in assessment of children in public and private Court cases. -- Debate

Introductionp. 9
Attachment and Caregiving
What is Attachment?p. 15
An evolutionary perspectivep. 16
The attachment behavioural systemp. 17
Activation and termination of attachment behaviourp. 17
The development of attachmentp. 18
Internal working models of attachment representationsp. 21
Interplay between attachment and other behavioural systemsp. 21
The exploratory behavioural system and the secure basep. 22
A safe or secure havep. 22
Summaryp. 23
The Classifications of Attachmentp. 24
Organised attachmentsp. 25
Disorganised attachmentp. 27
From disorganised to controlling attachment behaviourp. 29
An alternative classificationp. 30
The distribution of attachment patternsp. 30
Stability or predictability of attachment patternsp. 32
Summaryp. 36
What are the Factors Influencing Attachment Organisation (and Disorganisation)?p. 38
The contribution of caregiving to attachment organisationp. 38
What is caregiving?p. 38
Empirical evidence for the role of the caregiver in determining organisation (or disorganisation) of attachment securityp. 41
The role of the child's temperament and genetic factors in influencing attachment organisationp. 46
Temperament factorsp. 46
Attachment and autismp. 47
Specific genesp. 48
The intergenerational transmission of attachmentp. 49
The link between parental state of mind with respect to attachment and infant securityp. 50
The link between parental state of mind with respect to attachment and parental sensitive responsiveness (B)p. 51
The link between parental sensitive responsiveness and infant attachment security (C)p. 52
The transmission gapp. 52
Bridging the transmission gapp. 53
Summaryp. 55
Affectional Bonds and Attachment Figuresp. 56
What are affectional bonds?p. 56
How is an attachment figure defined?p. 59
Are professional child-carers attachment figures?p. 60
How are the representations of multiple attachment figures structured?p. 63
Summaryp. 69
Is Attachment Theory Valid across Cultures?p. 71
Ainsworth's Uganda studyp. 71
The Gusii of Kenyap. 72
The Dogon of Malip. 72
The Israeli Kibbutzimp. 73
The Hausa of Nigeriap. 74
The !Kung San of Botswanap. 75
The Efe or Pygmies of Zambiap. 75
The academic debatep. 75
Commentsp. 77
Summaryp. 81
Assessments of Attachment and Caregiving
Introductionp. 85
Attachmentp. 85
Caregivingp. 86
Structure for presentation of assessmentsp. 87
Glossary of research and statistical termsp. 89
Assessments of Attachmentp. 96
Assessments of attachment based on observation of the child's behaviourp. 96
Separation-reunion procedurep. 96
Q-sort methodologyp. 105
Assessments of attachment based on the child's internal working model/representationp. 109
Picture response tasksp. 109
Narrative Story Stem techniques (NSSTs)p. 113
Interview techniquesp. 124
Assessments of Caregivingp. 139
Assessments based on observations of caregivingp. 139
Maternal Sensitivity Scalesp. 139
The CARE-Indexp. 143
Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE)p. 145
Caregiver Behavior Classification Systemp. 147
Assessments/ measures of caregiving based on the caregiver's internal working model/ representation of caregiving or relationship with the childp. 150
Parent Development Interview (PDI)p. 150
Experiences of Caregiving Interviewp. 152
Correlates of Attachment Organisation with Functioning
Which Domains of Functioning are Hypothesised to be Correlated with Attachment and What are the Possible Pathways of its Influence?p. 159
Which domains of functioning are hypothesised to be correlated with attachment?p. 160
What are the possible pathways of the influence of attachment?p. 161
Summaryp. 165
Evidence for Correlations between Attachment Security/Insecurity and the Child's Functioningp. 166
Research issuesp. 166
The evidencep. 168
Summaryp. 179
What is Attachment Disorder?
Two Versions of Attachment Disorderp. 183
International classificationsp. 183
Another versionp. 184
Summaryp. 187
Research on Attachment Disorderp. 188
Issues regarding research methodsp. 188
The evidencep. 189
Young children in residential nurseries in the UK and their later developmentp. 190
Children from Romanian orphanages adopted in Canadap. 195
Deprived children from Romania adopted in the UKp. 200
Children living in residential nurseries in Bucharestp. 206
US children in high-risk populations and maltreated childrenp. 212
Summaryp. 216
The Nature of Attachment Disorderp. 218
No discriminated attachment figurep. 218
The nature of the difference between inhibited and disinhibited RADp. 220
Alternative criteria for disorders of attachmentp. 223
Disorganised and inhibited RADp. 225
Reactive attachment disorder in children over the age of 5?p. 225
Summaryp. 227
Attachment Theory-based Interventions (and Some that are Not)
Introductionp. 231
Evidence-based Interventions: Enhancing Caregiver Sensitivityp. 233
Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn and Juffer (2003) 'Less is more: meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood'p. 234
Cohen et al. (1999) 'Watch, wait and wonder: testing the effectiveness of a new approach to mother-infant psychotherapy'p. 239
van den Boom (1994) 'The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: an experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower-class mothers with irritable infants'p. 241
van den Boom (1995) 'Do first-year intervention effects endure? Follow-up during toddlerhood of a sample of Dutch irritable infants'p. 242
Benoit et al. (2001) 'Atypical maternal behavior toward feeding-disordered infants before and after intervention'p. 243
Toth et al. (2002) 'The relative efficacy of two interventions in altering maltreated preschool children's representational models: implications for attachment theory'p. 245
Marvin et al. (2002) 'The Circle of Security project: attachment-based intervention with caregiver-preschool dyads'p. 248
Summaryp. 250
Evidence-based Interventions: Change of Caregiverp. 252
Rushton and Mayes (1997) 'Forming fresh attachments in childhood: a research update'p. 252
Dozier et al. (2001) 'Attachment for infants in foster care: the role of caregiver state of mind'p. 254
Steele et al. (2003a) 'Attachment representations and adoption: associations between maternal states of mind and emotion narratives in previously maltreated children'p. 256
Hodges et al. Changes in attachment representations over the first year (Hodges et al. 2003b) and second year (Hodges et al. 2005) of adoptive placement: narratives of maltreated childrenp. 258
Summaryp. 260
Interventions with No Evidence Basep. 261
Direct intervention with the childp. 261
'Attachment therapy'p. 262
Conclusions Regarding Interventionsp. 267
Referencesp. 269
Subject Indexp. 281
Author Indexp. 286
About FOCUSp. 288
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781843102458
ISBN-10: 1843102455
Series: Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 288
Published: 15th August 2006
Publisher: JESSICA KINGSLEY PUBLISHERS
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.1 x 15.6  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.44