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Ultra Low-Power Integrated Circuit Design for Wireless Neural Interfaces - Jeremy Holleman

Ultra Low-Power Integrated Circuit Design for Wireless Neural Interfaces

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Published: 27th October 2010
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This book will describe ultra low-power, integrated circuits and systems designed for the emerging field of neural signal recording and processing, and wireless communication. Since neural interfaces are typically implanted, their operation is highly energy-constrained. This book introduces concepts and theory that allow circuit operation approaching the fundamental limits. Design examples and measurements of real systems are provided. The book will describe circuit designs for all of the critical components of a neural recording system, including: Amplifiers which utilize new techniques to improve the trade-off between good noise performance and low power consumption. Analog and mixed-signal circuits which implement signal processing tasks specific to the neural recording application:

Detection of neural spikes Extraction of features that describe the spikes Clustering, a machine learning technique for sorting spikes Weak-inversion operation of analog-domain transistors, allowing processing circuits that reduce the requirements for analog-digital conversion and allow low system-level power consumption. Highly-integrated, sub-mW wireless transmitter designed for the Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) and ISM bands.

Introductionp. 1
Referencesp. 6
Bio-Signal Interface Amplifiers: An Introductionp. 9
Characteristics of the Recording Electrodesp. 9
Characteristics of Bio-Signalsp. 11
Brain Recordingsp. 11
Muscle-Based Signalsp. 12
Noise/Power Tradeoffp. 12
Flicker Noise, 1/f Noisep. 12
Thermal Noisep. 13
Representative Prior Artp. 13
Referencesp. 14
A Low-Power, Low-Noise, Open-Loop Amplifier for Neural Recordingp. 15
Open-Loop Amplifier Designp. 15
Resultsp. 17
Effect of Non-Linearity on Neural Recordingsp. 20
Conclusionsp. 23
Referencesp. 23
Closed-Loop Neural Recording Amplifier Design Techniquesp. 25
Design of a Closed-Loop Telescopic Amplifierp. 25
Closed-Loop Architecturep. 25
Analysis of Pseudo-Resistorsp. 26
Telescopic OTA Design Overviewp. 27
Design Optimizationp. 28
Stability and Common-Mode Feedbackp. 29
Design of a Closed-Loop Complementary-Input Amplifierp. 30
Design of an Closed-Loop Fully-Differential Complementary-Input Amplifierp. 30
Design of a Variable-Gain Amplifierp. 33
Referencesp. 35
Closed-Loop Bio-Signal Amplifiers: Experimental Resultsp. 37
Amplifier Testingp. 37
Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA) Testingp. 39
In-Vivo Testingp. 41
Referencesp. 43
Design and Implementation of Chopper-Stabilized Amplifiersp. 45
Chopper-Stabilization Techniquep. 45
Open-Loop Operation Principlep. 45
Closed-Loop Operation Principlep. 46
Design of a Chopper-Stabilized Amplifierp. 46
Hardware Implementationp. 48
Transfer Functionp. 48
Amplifier Noisep. 49
Referencesp. 49
Spike Detection and Characterizationp. 51
The Spike Detection Taskp. 51
Spike Detection Techniquesp. 53
Analog and Mixed-Mode Computationp. 54
System Designp. 55
Spike Detectorp. 56
Feature Extractionp. 57
Analog-Digital Converterp. 58
Resultsp. 59
Referencesp. 62
Spike Sortingp. 65
Overviewp. 65
K-Means Clustering Algorithmp. 67
Hardware Considerations for Analog On-Line Clusteringp. 69
On-Line Median Learningp. 69
Non-Ideal Computational Elementsp. 71
Asymmetric Updatesp. 72
Referencesp. 74
Analog Clustering Circuitp. 75
Floating-Gate Memoriesp. 75
Device Characterizationp. 76
Circuit Designp. 79
Clustering Circuitp. 79
Floating-Gate Memory Cellp. 81
Decision Circuitp. 83
Experimental Resultsp. 85
Update Ratesp. 85
Memory Cell Retentionp. 87
Classificationp. 88
Clustering Convergencep. 90
Discussionp. 93
Referencesp. 96
NeuralWISP: A Wirelessly Powered Spike Density Recording Systemp. 97
Previous Neural Recording Systemsp. 97
System Designp. 99
Analog Signal Pathp. 100
Digital Controlp. 103
Test Resultsp. 103
Experimental Resultsp. 107
Conclusionsp. 108
Referencesp. 109
A 500 ¿W Wireles Neural Streaming Systemp. 111
Analog Front Endp. 111
Conversion and Controlp. 112
MICS-band Wireless Transmitterp. 113
Resultsp. 113
Referencesp. 115
Conclusionsp. 117
Referencesp. 118
Indexp. 119
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781441967268
ISBN-10: 1441967265
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 121
Published: 27th October 2010
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.81