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Tutorial Distance Learning : Rebuilding Our Educational System - Alfred M. Bork

Tutorial Distance Learning

Rebuilding Our Educational System

Paperback

Published: 31st October 2001
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Learning is a critical worldwide problem for humans, essential to create a peaceful and happy world. We have serious problems in learning in both wealthy and poor areas. New approaches to learning are needed, as the current system may not rise to the new challenges.
This book proposes a new strategy for learning, worldwide and for all ages of students. Computer-based distance learning would be the major delivery mechanism, with very large numbers of students. The very frequent interactions between the student and the computer would be like that with a skilled human teacher. These interactions would take place in the student's native language, in both directions. A typical interaction would be a question to a student, and a free-form student response. Both voice and keyboard student input would be possible. The learning programs would work with each student until mastery is achieved, adapting to the needs of each. Students would be active learners.
The book begins with the problems and goals of learning. It considers possible forms of distance learning, looking at the variables involved, current examples of distance learning, and possible future forms including examples from science fiction. It then investigates student interactions, considering both frequency of interactions and the quality of each interaction. Programs developed in the Educational Technology Center at the University of California, Irvine, illustrate the critical idea of tutorial learning with computers. Production of tutorial learning material and costs for a student hour of learning is discussed. The book ends with suggestions for future progress.
Current hardware and software is fully adequate for the tasks described. Development of all required learning units is a major activity. After this development, both better quality of learning and lower costs are very likely. Further experimental work is essential to understand the possibilities.

Introductionp. 1
Summary of Each Chapterp. 3
Problems And Visions Of Learningp. 7
The Problems of Education Todayp. 8
The Visionsp. 13
Need for a New Approach to Learningp. 16
Factors Of Distance Learningp. 19
Learning Paradigmp. 20
Level of Interactionp. 21
Student Locationsp. 22
Time Constraintsp. 23
Size of Learning Segmentsp. 24
Student Control of Contentp. 24
Years of Learningp. 24
Student Supportp. 25
Teachers or No Teachersp. 26
Number of Studentsp. 26
Grading or Masteryp. 26
Cost Factorsp. 27
Evaluationp. 28
Delivery Methodp. 29
Learning Subjectsp. 29
Credit or NonCreditp. 29
Profit or NonProfitp. 29
Distance Learning--Present And Futurep. 31
Correspondence Learningp. 31
Remote Sound and Videop. 31
Remote Versions of Standard Coursesp. 32
The United Kingdom Open Universityp. 34
The Mega-universitiesp. 36
Distance Learning in Fictionp. 37
Aspects of These Fictional Views of Learningp. 43
Individualization And Interactionp. 47
Individualizationp. 47
Interactionp. 48
Cooperative Learning Groupsp. 52
Storing Student Informationp. 53
What Material Is Presented Nextp. 55
Mastery Learningp. 59
Motivating Learnersp. 61
Multimedia In Learningp. 63
Types of Multimediap. 63
Why Media Improve Learningp. 69
Tutorial Learningp. 71
Tutorsp. 72
Computer-Based Tutorsp. 73
Is Computer-Based Tutorial Learning Possible?p. 76
Summary of Computer-Based Tutorial Learningp. 82
Delivery Of Learningp. 85
Older Delivery Methodsp. 86
CD-ROM and DVD-ROMp. 86
The World Wide Webp. 86
Communicationp. 91
Communication Mediap. 92
Learning And Assessmentp. 95
Why Do We Assess?p. 95
Types of Assessmentp. 99
Combining Learning and Assessmentp. 101
Structures For Technology Based Learningp. 105
Traditional Coursesp. 105
Non-linear Learningp. 106
Mastery Organizationp. 107
The Learning Cyclep. 111
Complete Mastery Learning Cyclep. 112
Developing Tutorial Learning Unitsp. 115
History of the Irvine-Geneva Systemp. 115
Managementp. 117
Designp. 117
Implementationp. 124
Formative Evaluation and Improvementp. 126
Summative Evaluationp. 128
Improving the Irvine-Geneva Systemp. 128
Costs Of Highly Interactive Learningp. 129
The Economics of Learningp. 129
Developmental Costsp. 130
Marketing Costsp. 137
Administrative Costsp. 138
Delivery Costsp. 139
Profitp. 140
Costs for Usage by Poor Studentsp. 141
Funds for Additional Development and Distributionp. 141
Complete Costs for a Student Hourp. 141
Other Forms of Learningp. 142
Up Front Costs and Continuing Costsp. 143
Initial Tutorial Learning Unitsp. 145
Pre-school and Early Learningp. 145
Home Learningp. 146
Trainingp. 147
Adult Educationp. 147
Schoolsp. 148
Literacyp. 152
Informal Learning Environmentsp. 153
Apprentice Learningp. 154
University Educationp. 154
Starting New Distance Learning Institutionsp. 159
The Experimentp. 161
Full Developmentp. 164
Marketing of Tutorial Unitsp. 167
Fundingp. 168
Conclusionsp. 171
Bibliographyp. 173
Indexp. 189
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306466441
ISBN-10: 0306466449
Series: Clinical Sociology
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 192
Published: 31st October 2001
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.1 x 14.99  x 1.12
Weight (kg): 0.27