Four years have elapsed since the preparation of the original Russian version of this book. This is a long time when dealing with such actively expanding fields of oceanography as research into small-scale structures and the investigation of hydro physical processes. Over this period new quick-response devices have been developed and successfully used for measurements taken in various ocean areas. Improvements in high-frequency meters used to measure hydrophysical parameters has enabled workers to obtain more accurate absolute values of the fluctuations measured by such devices. In view of this scientific progress, some of the ideas presented in this book now require additional explanation. Great care should be used in dealing with the absolute fluctuation values of hydro physical fields, since the methods used for the determination of the accuracy of the high-frequency measuring devices have been imperfect in the past.
Never- theless, it would appear that the results of the investigations summarized in this book have not lost their importance, and that the established laws governing small-scale pro- cesses in the ocean are of a sufficiently universal nature and, as such, have not been shattered with the qualitative and quantitative advances in devices used for measurements taken in oceans. The authors feel that their work is of interest to English-speaking readers. The appearance of the English translation of the book is, to a very large extent, due to the tremendous amount of editing work brilliantly done by Prof. H. Tennekes.
`The translation and Tennekes's editing are excellent, the language is colloquial and accurate, and the book itself is cleanly produced. Physical oceanographers, whether studying or doing research on this subject, will find it a pleasure to use.'
I. Theory of Turbulence in Stratified Flows.- 1. Definition of Turbulence.- 2. Equations of Turbulent Flow.- 3. Mechanisms of Turbulence Generation in the Ocean.- 3.1 Instability of Vertical Velocity Gradients in Drifting Flow.- 3.2 Overturning of Surface Waves.- 3.3 Instability of Vertical Velocity Gradients in Stratified Large-Scale Oceanic Flows.- 3.4 Hydrodynamic Instability of Quasi-Horizontal Meso-Scale Non-Stationary Flows.- 3.5 Instability of Local Velocity Gradients in Internal Waves.- 3.6 Convection in Layers with Unstable Density Stratification.- 3.7 Instability of Vertical Velocity Gradients in a Bottom Boundary Layer (BBL).- 4. Stratification Effects.- 5. Theory of Turbulence Spectra.- 6. The Small-Scale Structure of Turbulence.- II. Small-Scale Turbulence.- 7. Instruments for The Measurement of Small-Scale Turbulence.- 7.1 Experimental Techniques.- 8. Statistical Characteristics of Turbulence.- 9. Velocity Fluctuations.- 9.1 Root-Mean-Square Values.- 9.2 Correlation Functions and Spectra.- 9.3 Dependence on Local Background Conditions.- 9.4 Spectra of Fluctuation Intensity and Energy Dissipation.- 9.5 Turbulent Energy Dissipation Rate.- 9.6 Climatology of Small-Scale Turbulence.- 10. Temperature Fluctuations.- 10.1 An Indirect Method of Estimating Temperature Fluctuations.- 10.2 Local Temperature Gradients in the Ocean.- 10.3 Variations in Fine-Structure Temperature Profiles.- 10.4 Direct Measurements of High-Frequency Temperature Fluctuations.- 10.5 Turbulent Heat Fluxes.- 10.6 Spectra of High-Frequency Temperature Fluctuations.- 10.7 Spectral Characteristics of the Temperature Variability in the Ocean.- 10.8 Dissipation Rate of Temperature Inhomogeneities.- 11. Fluctuations of Electrical Conductivity and Salinity.- 11.1 Fundamentals.- 11.2 Local Gradients of C and S.- 11.3 Spectral Characteristics.- 11.4 Dependence on Local Background Conditions.- 11.5 Intermittency of Electrical Conductivity Fluctuations.- 11.6 Deep-Sea Measurement Data.- 11.7 Determination of Salinity Fluctuations.- 11.8 Density Fluctuations and Turbulent Mass Flux.- 11.9 Climatology of Electrical Conductivity Fluctuations.- III. Large-Scale Horizontal Turbulence.- 12. Large-Scale Turbulence and Negative Eddy Viscosity.- 13. Theory of Two-Dimensional Turbulence.- 14. Horizontal Turbulence Spectra.- Notes.- References.- Name Index.