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Transport Processes in Ion-Irradiated Polymers : Springer Series in Materials Science - Dietmar Fink

Transport Processes in Ion-Irradiated Polymers

Springer Series in Materials Science

By: Dietmar Fink (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: 1st November 2004
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Presented in two parts, this first comprehensive overview addresses all aspects of energetic ion irradiation of polymers. Earlier publications and review articles concentrated on selected topics only. And the need for such a work has grown with the dramatic increase of research and applications, such as in photoresists, waveguides, and medical dosimetry, during the last decade.The first part, Fundamentals of Ion Irradiation of Polymers covers the physical, chemical and instrumental fundamentals; treats the specific irradiation mechanisms of low- and high-energy ions (including similarities and differences); and details the potential for future technological application. All the new findings are carefully analyzed and presented in a systematic way, while open questions are identified.The second volume, Transport Processes in Ion Irradiated Polymers deals with transport processes in both unirradiated and irradiated polymers. As both a review and a stimulus, this work seeks to contribute substantially to the literature and advancement of polymeric devices, from both the low- and high-energy regimes.

Transport Processes in Polymers
Transport Processes: Fundamentalsp. 7
Diffusion in Polymers: Overviewp. 9
Case I Diffusionp. 11
Regular Fickian Diffusionp. 11
Some Special Cases and Peculiaritiesp. 15
One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Semi-infinite Mediump. 19
One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Thin Foilp. 20
Permeation through a Membranep. 21
Case I Diffusion with Driftp. 23
Electrolytes in Polymersp. 24
Case I Diffusion with Sorptionp. 25
Chemical Reaction Kineticsp. 29
Numerical Solution of Diffusive Problemsp. 30
Clustering Phenomenap. 31
Three-Dimensional Case I Diffusionp. 34
Case II and Anomalous Diffusionp. 34
Swellingp. 35
Case II Diffusion Modelsp. 36
Penetration along Poresp. 38
Diffusional Penetration along Latent Tracksp. 38
Penetration along Etched Tracksp. 38
Capillaric Penetration along Tracksp. 39
Interfacesp. 43
Transport Processes in Low-Energy Ion-Irradiated Polymersp. 51
Transport of Implanted Penetrants; General Remarksp. 51
Thermal Diffusion of Implanted Ionsp. 55
Radiation-Enhanced Diffusionp. 55
Self-Radiation-Enhanced Transport of Ions Implanted into Polymers after Low-Fluence Irradiationp. 55
Radiation-Enhanced Transport of Ions in Polymersp. 61
Transport of Metals in Polymersp. 64
Transport of Metals through Metal/Polymer Interfacesp. 64
Transport of Ion-Implanted Metals in Polymersp. 65
Transport Processes of High-Fluence Implanted Ionsp. 67
Transport Processes of Liquid Penetrants within Ion-Irradiated Polymersp. 71
Liquid Penetrants in Ion-Irradiated Polymersp. 71
Transport of Penetrants in Three Dimensionsp. 76
Penetration of Gases into Ion-Irradiated Polymersp. 79
The Influence of Surfaces on the Transport of Penetrantsp. 82
Transport of Intrinsic Polymer Components after Ion Irradiationp. 83
Mobility of Radiochemical Productsp. 83
Photoresist Inhibitor Mobilityp. 84
Thermal-Stability Enhancement of Photoresistsp. 87
Transport of Charge Carriers in Irradiated Polymersp. 89
Summary and Concluding Remarksp. 89
Transport Processes in Tracksp. 97
Transport of Solids in Ion Tracksp. 98
Latent Tracksp. 98
Etched Tracksp. 99
Transport of Liquids in Ion Tracksp. 99
Penetration of Liquids into Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Polymersp. 99
Depth Profiles of Penetrating Liquidsp. 100
Transport of Liquids into Latent Tracks: Corrosion Effects and Agingp. 120
Swelling after Penetration of Liquids into Latent Tracksp. 121
Latent-Track Sensibilization (Sensitization) and Graftingp. 123
Transport of Liquids through Etched Tracksp. 124
Transport of Suspended Particles through Etched Tracksp. 126
Transport Processes in Irradiated Biological Matterp. 127
Transport of Gases in Ion Tracksp. 128
Latent Tracksp. 128
Etched Tracksp. 131
Current Transport through Ion Tracks Embedded in Liquidsp. 132
Electrolytes in Latent Tracksp. 132
Etched Tracksp. 134
Transmission of Energetic Ions through Tracks in Vacuump. 139
Latent Tracksp. 139
Etched Tracksp. 139
Ion-Track Etchingp. 151
Basics of Etching Physics and Chemistryp. 151
Etching Kineticsp. 151
Etching of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Polymersp. 153
Ion-Track Swellingp. 156
Etching of Polymers with Structural Inhomogeneities. Why Are Ion Tracks Preferentially Etched?p. 159
Selection of Appropriate Etchants for Developing Ion Tracksp. 161
Etching Threshold and Track-Etch Sensitivityp. 167
Basic Definitionsp. 167
Sensitivity Depends on the Polymer Structurep. 169
Sensitivity Depends on the Etching Conditionsp. 170
Track-Etch Response at High Stopping Powerp. 172
The Realization of Ion-Track Etchingp. 174
Environmental Effects and Track Sensitizationp. 176
Shapes of Etched Tracksp. 180
Modeling the Track Shape on the Microscopic Scalep. 180
Examples of Etched Tracks in Polymersp. 183
Track Etching in the Case of Insoluble Fillers or Etching Productsp. 186
Etched-Track Profiles in the Nanometer Rangep. 190
Thermal Stability of Etched Tracksp. 196
Techniques to Improve the Visibility of Very Small Etched Tracksp. 196
Cases of Inverse Etchingp. 197
Applications
Applications of Low-Energy Polymer Ion Irradiationp. 209
Lithography for Electronicsp. 209
Micromachining by Focused Ion Beamsp. 212
Applications of Ion-Beam-Modified Surfacesp. 213
Tribological Applicationsp. 213
Enhancement of Metal-Polymer Adhesionp. 214
Aerospace Technology: Applications that Require Enhanced Chemical Resistancep. 214
Nuclear-Waste Management: Applications that Require Reduced Permeabilityp. 215
Applications of Changes of Optical Properties of Irradiated Polymersp. 215
Applications of Changes of Electrical Conductivity of Irradiated Polymersp. 216
Ion-Beam-Modified Polymers for Medicine and Biotechnologyp. 219
Ion-Track Manipulationsp. 231
Manipulation of Latent Tracksp. 231
Material Chemical Conversion and Phase Transitionsp. 231
Trapping of Migrating Impurities at Latent Tracksp. 232
Use of Ion-Induced Excess Free Volumep. 232
Manipulation of Latent Tracks for Production of Etched-Track Patternsp. 232
Manipulation of Etched Tracksp. 233
Formation of Track Templates from the Vapor Phasep. 233
Formation of Massive Track Templates (Rods, Wires, Fibers) from the Liquid Phasep. 236
Tubule Formation by Chemical Bath and Electrodeless Deposition Processesp. 246
Formation of Complex Nanostructuresp. 256
Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Nanowires and Nanotubulesp. 260
Nonstatistical Ion-Track Distributionsp. 263
Approaches Competing with Ion Tracks for Applicationsp. 264
Ion-Track Applicationsp. 273
Applications of Latent Tracksp. 273
Applications of Etched Tracksp. 275
Etched-Track Membranesp. 275
Applications of Ion Tracks in Dosimetry and Related Fieldsp. 278
Applications of Etched Tracks in Lithographyp. 278
Applications of Etch Tracks for Galvanic Replicasp. 279
Applications of Etched Tracks in Separation Technologyp. 279
Applications of Etched Tracks in Sensing Technologyp. 284
Other Chemical Applications of Etched Tracksp. 289
Biomedical Applicationsp. 289
Applications of Etched Tracks in Novel Packing Materialsp. 292
Electronic Applicationsp. 296
Magnetic Applicationsp. 304
Optical Applicationsp. 308
Mechanical Applications?p. 310
Statistical or Spatially Defined Ion Impact?p. 310
Conclusion
Concluding Remarksp. 321
Indexp. 329
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540209430
ISBN-10: 3540209433
Series: Springer Series in Materials Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 337
Published: 1st November 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.7