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Topics In Polymer Physics - Richard S. Stein

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This book can serve as an introduction to students interested in learning the techniques used in developing mathematical models of physical phenomenon in polymers; or it can furnish the background information to the experienced professional desiring to broaden his/her knowledge of polymers. The senior author presented material in this book to students interested in learning the fundamental mathematics underlying many areas of polymer physics and in lectures to audiences with varying backgrounds in polymer physics. Too many times, the basic equations are presented in final form from either lack of space or the assumption that the derivation is widely disseminated and does not require repetition. A wide variety of topics are covered, from the statistical physics and thermodynamics of polymers, to the optical and electrical behavior of polymers, as well as spectroscopy techniques for polymers.A website for the book is available at the URL: http://web.mac.com/rsstein1/iWebThis contains pages describing the book, the authors, information about important polymer scientists, links to additional material, book corrections, and recent developments.

Dedicationp. v
Prefacep. vii
Introductionp. 1
Backgroundp. 1
Linear Chain Moleculesp. 4
Structurep. 4
Synthesisp. 8
Molecular Weightp. 10
Network Moleculesp. 15
Structurep. 15
Synthesisp. 16
Molecular Weightp. 16
Rubberp. 17
Structurep. 17
Synthesisp. 21
Molecular Weightp. 21
Multicomponent Systemsp. 21
Copolymersp. 21
Polyblendsp. 25
Compositesp. 25
Ceramersp. 26
Referencesp. 27
Derivation of the Most Probable Distributionp. 28
Referencep. 30
Statistics of Chain Conformationsp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Small Moleculesp. 31
Larger Molecules, Statistical Variation of Molecular Conformationsp. 40
Statistical Segment Modelp. 41
Generalization to High Polymersp. 44
Polymer Chains Containing Two Kinds of Atomsp. 45
Model Chains with Restricted Rotation and No Interaction Among the [phi]'sp. 47
Rotational Isomeric State (RIS) Approximationp. 49
Chains with Interactions between [phi] Values of Neighboring Monomersp. 51
Asymmetric Barriersp. 53
Comparison with Experimentp. 56
Chain End-to-End Distribution Functionsp. 58
One Dimensional Casep. 58
Extension to a Three Dimensional Chainp. 61
Extension to Non-Gaussian Casep. 64
Referencesp. 71
Statistical Mechanicsp. 73
Referencesp. 80
Statistical Thermodynamics of an Ideal Monatomic Gasp. 81
Vector Analysisp. 83
Vector Additionp. 83
Scalar Productp. 84
Referencep. 85
Radius of Gyrationp. 86
Evaluation of (a[subscript m+n] [middle dot] a[subscript m])p. 92
Restricted Rotation with Symmetrical Barrierp. 99
Rotational Isomeric State (RIS) Approximationp. 103
Introductionp. 103
The Conformational Partition Functionp. 104
Mean Square Distancep. 106
Referencesp. 107
Random Walk of Gaussian Chainsp. 109
Referencesp. 113
Radius of Gyration, Size and Shapep. 114
Definition of <r[superscript 2 subscript q]>p. 114
<r[superscript 2 subscript q]> for a Rigid Rodp. 115
<r[superscript 2 subscript q]> for a Sphere of Radius Rp. 116
Determination of <r[superscript 2 subscript q]> from Scatteringp. 117
Thermodynamicsp. 121
Introductionp. 121
Thermodynamics of Elasticityp. 121
Force on a Chain in the Presence of Energy Contributions to Elasticityp. 129
Solution Thermodynamicsp. 134
Flory-Huggins Theoryp. 134
Calculation of P[subscript 2]p. 138
Entropy of Mixingp. 140
Polymer Miscibilityp. 145
Spinodal Decompositionp. 147
Heat Capacityp. 153
Thermodynamics of Crystallizationp. 154
Polymer Structure - Melting Pointp. 155
Effect of Diluent and Impuritiesp. 157
Crystallization Induced by Stretchingp. 164
Referencesp. 167
Classical Thermodynamicsp. 169
Referencesp. 175
Heat of Mixingp. 176
Osmotic Pressurep. 181
Opticsp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Nature of Electromagnetic Wavesp. 186
Refractionp. 187
Scatteringp. 191
Intensity of Light Scattering for an Isolated Atom or Moleculep. 194
Effect of the Polarization of Lightp. 195
The Scattering Intensity for a Collection of Scattering Objectsp. 196
Diffractionp. 205
The Reciprocal Latticep. 205
Interpretation of the Vector Bragg Equationp. 208
The Distance Between Crystal Planesp. 209
The Diffraction Phenomenon in One Dimensionp. 211
Absorptionp. 215
Fluorescencep. 216
Birefringencep. 218
Scattering from Inhomogeneous Mediap. 222
Quasi-elastic Light Scatteringp. 228
Variation of Scattering with Electric Fieldsp. 229
Non-Linear Opticsp. 230
Piezo-Electric Materialsp. 232
Kerr Effectp. 233
Referencesp. 234
Depolarization of Scatteringp. 236
Scattering from a Collection of Moleculesp. 239
The Magnitude of the Reciprocal Vector Hp. 244
Orientation Fluctuationsp. 246
Scattering from Concentration Fluctuationsp. 249
Evaluation of ([partial differential alpha]/[partial differential]c)p. 252
Evaluation of [-([partial differential mu subscript 1]/[partial differential]c)]p. 252
Molecular Weight from Light Scatteringp. 253
Dealing with Large Moleculesp. 255
Extensions to Other Kinds of Radiationp. 256
Extensions to Concentrated Solution and Bulk Polymersp. 257
Effect of Anisotropy and Orientationp. 257
Why Concentration Fluctuations Relate to Molecular Weightp. 257
How to Measure the Size of an Elephantp. 258
Another Way of Looking At It -p. 260
Electrical Propertiesp. 263
Introductionp. 263
Dielectricsp. 264
Dielectric Constantp. 264
Orientation of permanent dipolesp. 269
Dielectric Lossp. 269
Piezo- and Pyroelectric Effectsp. 272
Piezo-Electric Coefficientp. 274
Referencesp. 276
Lines of Fluxp. 278
Electrical Field Strengthp. 278
Electric displacement and Flux Densityp. 278
The Electrostatic Potential (Voltage)p. 280
The Field between Parallel Platesp. 280
Lorentz Calculation, Internal Field Correctionp. 282
Spectroscopyp. 285
Introductionp. 285
General Backgroundp. 286
Infraredp. 288
Ramanp. 295
Ultraviolet and Visiblep. 299
Nuclear Magnetic Resonancep. 300
Neutron Inelastic Scattering (NIS)p. 301
Referencesp. 303
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)p. 305
Referencesp. 307
Normal Coordinate Analysisp. 308
Referencesp. 312
Spectrographic Notationp. 313
The Rubbery Statep. 314
Introductionp. 314
Force - Extension Relation for Rubbersp. 316
Simple Casep. 316
Consideration of Network Crosslinksp. 318
Affine Transformationp. 322
Uniaxial Stretching at Constant Volumep. 329
Biaxial Stretching at Constant Volumep. 331
Application to the Inflation of a Balloonp. 333
Network Defects - The Relationship between N[subscript C] and vp. 334
Effect of Swelling on an Isotropic Networkp. 336
Elastic Properties of Swollen Rubberp. 339
Elasticity of a Sample That is Swollen When Crosslinkedp. 341
Elasticity of Rubbers at Small Extensionsp. 343
Guth-Smallwood Equationsp. 347
Referencesp. 348
Evaluation of Equation 7.30p. 350
The Crystalline Statep. 352
Introductionp. 352
Evidence for Crystallinityp. 354
X-Ray Diffractionp. 354
Electron Microscopical Observationsp. 358
Optical Microscopyp. 359
Thermodynamic Transitionsp. 360
Determination of Degree of Crystallinep. 361
Density Measurementsp. 361
X-Ray Diffractionp. 364
Infrared (IR) and Ramanp. 365
Wide Line Nuclear Magnetic Resonancep. 366
Thermal Measurementsp. 368
Morphologyp. 369
Electron Microscopep. 369
The observed pyramidal structurep. 369
Moire Patternsp. 370
Densityp. 370
nmrp. 371
X-ray diffractionp. 371
Kineticsp. 371
Optical Microscopyp. 372
Liquid Crystalsp. 373
Mechanisms of Crystallizationp. 375
Nucleation and Growthp. 375
Kinetics of Crystallizationp. 376
Temperature Dependence of the Nucleation Ratep. 376
Nucleation and Growthp. 379
Experimental Determination of n and kp. 384
Slope-Intercept Methodp. 384
Half-life Methodp. 385
Temperature Dependence of the Rate of Homogeneous Crystallizationp. 386
Referencesp. 387
Glossary of Symbols Arranged by Chaptersp. 389
Chapter 1p. 389
Chapter 2p. 389
Chapter 3p. 392
Chapter 4p. 396
Chapter 5p. 398
Chapter 7p. 402
Chapter 8p. 403
Indexp. 407
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ISBN: 9781860944116
ISBN-10: 1860944116
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 432
Published: 10th March 2006
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 16.51  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.75