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Time in Natural Language : Syntactic Interfaces with Semantics and Discourse - Ellen Thompson

Time in Natural Language

Syntactic Interfaces with Semantics and Discourse

Hardcover

Published: 18th July 2005
For Ages: 22+ years old
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Time in Natural Language investigates the relationship between the syntactic and semantic representations of sentences within the domain of tense. Assuming that tenses are semantically composed of three distinct times, Thompson proposes that these times map onto the syntax in a regular fashion: each time is associated with a unique syntactic head. Adopting the Minimalist approach to syntactic theory, this approach makes possible insightful analyses of syntactic structures involving temporal dependency.

Thompson argues that, depending on their adjunction site, temporal adverbials modify different parts of the tense structure of the clause. Locating the Event time within VP, it is correctly predicted that an adverbial that modifies the Event time is adjoined to VP. On the other hand, since the Reference time is argued to be within AspP, when an adverbial is adjoined to AspP, it modifies the Reference time. The syntax of temporal adjunct clauses is accounted for in a similar fashion; they may be adjoined either to VP, where they are interpreted as simultaneous with the matrix event, or to AspP, where they are interpreted as nonsimultaneous.

Thompson shows that the analysis sheds light on the less-studied issue of the temporal syntax of arguments. Subjects with gerundive relative clauses are claimed to be interpreted in VP at LF when the relative clause is temporally dependent on the Event time of the main clause, and in TP when the relative clause is dependent on the Speech time of the main clause. By extending the syntactic proposal to investigate the discourse-level effects of tense, an original analysis of the discourse representation of tense is proposed. Thompson argues that the discourse representation of tense is based on same primitives and subject to the same principles as the syntactic representation of tense, based on an in-depth examination of the structure and meaning of the temporal discourse adverb then.

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Time in Natural Language
Introductionp. 1
Syntactic Frameworkp. 3
Semantic Framework of Tensep. 4
Reichenbach (1947)p. 4
Times as Semantic Featuresp. 5
Syntax of Tensep. 5
Semantic Framework of Aspectp. 7
Jackendoff (1991)p. 9
Syntax of Aspectp. 10
Organization of the Bookp. 10
The Structure of Time Adverbials
Introductionp. 15
Semantic Frameworkp. 16
A Syntax for Tensep. 16
The Syntax of Adverbialsp. 17
The Locality of Adverbial Modificationp. 18
Syntax of Temporal Adverbialsp. 19
An Ambiguity in Temporal Adverbialsp. 21
Linear Order Restrictionsp. 22
Coordinationp. 23
Preposition Strandingp. 26
Contituency Testsp. 27
Direct Objects and Temporal Adverbialsp. 27
A Minimalist Account of the Asymmetryp. 28
Negation and Temporal Adverbialsp. 30
Scope of Adverbialsp. 32
Agent-Oriented Adverbsp. 32
Manner Adverbsp. 35
Clause-initial Temporal Adverbialsp. 39
An Ambiguity with Durative Adverbialsp. 40
In Favor of an Adjunction Analysis of Temporal Adverbialsp. 41
Conclusionp. 43
Adjunct Clauses and the Structural Representation of Simultaneity
Introductionp. 51
Temporal Ambiguity of Clausal Adjunctsp. 52
Movement Analysis of Temporal Ambiguity: Geis (1970)p. 52
Case-based Analysis of Temporal Ambiguity: Larson (1990)p. 53
Other English Connectivesp. 54
German Temporal Prepositionsp. 55
Syntax and Semantics of Temporal Adjunct Clausesp. 56
The Semantics of the Null Operatorp. 56
A Structure for Temporal Adjunct Clausesp. 58
Analysis of Temporal Ambiguityp. 60
Simultaneous Adjunct Clausesp. 60
Nonsimultaneous Adjunct Clausesp. 66
Preposition Stranding with Temporals in Englishp. 68
Direct Object/Adjunct Asymmetriesp. 69
Clause-initial Temporal Adjunctsp. 71
When Clausesp. 71
Ellipsis Structuresp. 76
TP Ellipsisp. 76
VP Ellipsisp. 77
Antecedent Contained Deletion with Argumentsp. 79
In Favor of an Adjunction Analysis of Temporal Clausesp. 80
Conclusionp. 82
The Temporal Syntax of Arguments: Reduced Relatives in Subject Position
Introductionp. 87
Interpretation of Gerundive Relativesp. 88
Temporal Dependency of Gerundive Relativesp. 89
Speech Time Readingsp. 91
Historical Present Contextsp. 91
Sequence of Tense Constructionsp. 91
Reduced Clause Structure of Gerundive Relativesp. 95
Missing CP Projectionp. 95
Missing Inflectional Projectionsp. 96
Syntax of Subject Gerundive Relativesp. 97
A Restriction on Time Linkingp. 97
Locality of Temporal Interpretationp. 99
Structural Evidencep. 99
Coordinationp. 100
Existential Constructionsp. 101
Scope of Quantificational Adverbialsp. 102
Scope of Cardinality Adverbialsp. 104
Extrapositionp. 106
Presuppositionality Effectsp. 109
Reconstruction Effects and Gerundive Relativesp. 110
Extraposition of Gerundive Relativesp. 111
Conclusionp. 112
Principles of Time in Discourse: Temporal Syntax beyond the Sentence
Introductionp. 119
Position and Interpretation of thenp. 120
Syntax of thenp. 121
Clause-final thenp. 122
Clause-medial thenp. 122
Clause-initial thenp. 128
Semantics of thenp. 131
A Restriction on Tense Structuresp. 133
Perfect Tenses with thenp. 140
Futurate Readingsp. 147
Infinitival Clausesp. 148
Conclusionp. 150
The Structure of Aspect
Introductionp. 157
Semantic Frameworkp. 158
Compositionality of Telicityp. 160
A Syntax for Aspectp. 162
Syntax of Quicklyp. 164
Linear Order of Quicklyp. 165
Preposing of Quicklyp. 166
Syntax of Time Frame and Durative Adjunctsp. 167
Preposition Strandingp. 167
Scope of onlyp. 169
Parastic Gap Constructionsp. 171
Specificity Effects with Time Frame and Durative Adjunctsp. 173
Conclusionp. 176
Syntax and Semantics of Aspectual Verbs
Introductionp. 183
Semantics of Aspectual Verbsp. 183
Syntax and Interpretation of Verb Movementp. 185
Association with focusp. 187
Existential Constructionsp. 190
Extrapositionp. 193
Quantifier Scope Ambiguitiesp. 196
Conclusionp. 202
Referencesp. 205
Indexp. 221
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783110184143
ISBN-10: 3110184141
Series: Interface Explorations [IE]
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 239
Published: 18th July 2005
Publisher: De Gruyter
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.0 x 15.5  x 1.78
Weight (kg): 0.48