This book grew out of lectures on geophysical fluid dynamics delivered over many years at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology by the author (and, with regard to some parts of the book, by his colleagues). During these lectures the students were advised to read many books, and sometimes individual articles, in order to acquaint themselves with the necessary material, since there was no single book available which provided a sufficiently complete and systematic account (except, perhaps, the volumes on Hydrophysics of the Ocean, Hydrodynamics of the Ocean, and Geodynamics in the ten-volume Oceanology series published by Nauka Press in 1978-1979; these refer, however, specifically to the ocean, and anyway they are much too massive to be convenient for study by students). As far as we know, no text corresponding to our understanding of geophysical fluid dynamics has as yet been published outside the Soviet Union. The present book is designed to fill this gap. Since it is customary to write the preface after the entire book has been completed, the author has an opportunity there to raise some points of possible criticism by the reviewers and readers. First of all, note that this work presents the theoretical fundamentals of geophysical fluid dynamics, and that observational and experimental data (which in the natural sciences are always very copious) are referred to only rarely and briefly.
I: General Concepts.- 1. Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics.- 1. Thermodynamics.- 2. Stratification.- 3. Fluid Dynamics.- 4. Potential Vorticity.- 5. Energy.- 6. Hydrodynamic Systems.- 2. Small Oscillations.- 7. Types of Adiabatic Motions.- 8. Small Oscillations of an Isothermal Atmosphere.- 9. Adaptation.- 10. Laplace Tidal Equation.- 3. Hydrodynamic Instability.- 11. Instability of an Ideal Fluid.- 12. Baroclinic Instability.- 13. Bifurcations.- 14. Instability of a Viscous Fluid.- 15. Stochasticity.- 16. Stochastization Scenarios.- 17. Taylor and Lorenz Flows.- II: Processes.- 4. Surface Waves.- 18. Linear Theory.- 19. Ray Theory.- 20. Stationary Waves.- 21. Stationary Potential Waves.- 22. Stationary Gravity Waves.- 23. Stationary Capillary Waves.- 24. Hamiltonian Formalism.- 25. Wind Waves.- 5. Internal Waves.- 26. Linear Theory.- 27. Ray Theory.- 28. Stationary Waves.- 29. Generation of Microstructure.- 30. Hamiltonian Formalism.- 31. Spectra.- 32. Inertial Oscillations.- 6. Geophysical Turbulence.- 33. Statistical Fluid Mechanics.- 34. Turbulence in Stratified Media.- 35. Vertical Thinly Laminated Microstructure.- 36. Boundary Layers.- 37. Geostrophic Turbulence.- 7. Rossby Waves.- 38. Linear Theory.- 39. Topographic Waves.- 40. Stationary Waves.- 41. Hamiltonian Formalism.- 42. Generation and Dissipation.- III: Global Problems.- 8. General Circulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean.- 43. General Circulation of the Atmosphere.- 44. Similarity Theory for the Circulation of Planetary Atmospheres.- 45. Numerical Models of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere.- 46. Circulation of the World Ocean.- 47. Eddy-Resolving Models.- 9. Theory of Climate.- 48. Concept of Climate.- 49. Simplified Climate Models.- 50. Three-Dimensional Numerical Models.- 51. Modeling of Glacial Periods.- 10. Fluid Dynamics of Planetary Interiors.- 52. Fluid Dynamics of the Earth's Core.- 53. Hydromagnetic Dynamos.- 54. Evolution of Planetary Interiors.- 55. Mantle Convection.- Selected References.