Were those who worked in the theatres of the Third Reich willing participants in the Nazi propaganda machine or artists independent of official ideology? To what extent did Richard Strauss and Carl Orff follow Nazi dogma? How did famous directors such as Gustaf Grüdgens and Jürgen Fehling react to the new regime? Why were Shakespeare and George Bernard Shaw among the most performed dramatists of the time? And why did the Nazis sanction Jewish theatre? This is the first book in English about theater in the entire Nazi period. Based on contemporary press reports, research in German archives, and interviews with surviving playwrights, actors, and musicians, it is a much needed guide to this neglected area of European culture.