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The World Turned Upside Down : Medieval Japanese Society - Pierre Francois Souyri

The World Turned Upside Down

Medieval Japanese Society

Hardcover Published: 11th September 2001
ISBN: 9780231118422
Number Of Pages: 336
For Ages: 22+ years old

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In the late twelfth century, Japanese people called the transitional period in which they were living the "age of warriors." Feudal clans fought civil wars, and warriors from the Kanto Plain rose up to restore the military regime of their shogun, Yoritomo. The whole of this intermediary period came to represent a gap between two stable societies: the ancient period, dominated by the imperial court in Heian (today's Kyoto), and the modern period, dominated by the Tokugawa "bakufu" based in Edo (today's Tokyo).

In this remarkable portrait of a complex period in the evolution of Japan, Pierre F. Souyri uses a wide variety of sources -- ranging from legal and historical texts to artistic and literary examples -- to form a magisterial overview of medieval Japanese society. As much at home discussing the implications of the morality and mentality of "The Tale of the Heike" as he is describing local disputes among minor vassals or the economic implications of the pirate trade, Souyri brilliantly illustrates the interconnected nature of medieval Japanese culture.

The Middle Ages was a decisive time in Japan's history because it confirmed the country's national identity. New forms of cultural expression, such as poetry, theater, garden design, the tea ceremony, flower arranging, and illustrated scrolls, conveyed a unique sensibility -- sometimes in opposition to the earlier Chinese models followed by the old nobility. "The World Turned Upside Down" provides an animated account of the religious, intellectual, and literary practices of medieval Japan in order to reveal the era's own notable cultural creativity and enormous economic potential.

Industry Reviews

A masterful synthesis of current scholarship... brilliant... excellent. -- Herman Ooms Journal of Asian Studies Souryi dexterously handles historiographical controversies with a light and kindly touch. Choice Thought provoking... Whoever wants to get a broad picture of the current state of the art in the field of Japanese medieval history should read this book. -- Reinhard Zollner (of the French edition) Monumenta Nipponica The World Turned Upside Down is an indispensable addition to the growing corpus examining this vital era when the Japanese world truly did seem to be in total upheaval. History A solid social history filling a void in the present English literature on social history in the Japanese Middle Ages. -- James Guthrie Sixteenth Century Journal Pierre Souyri does not burden the reader with detail that a new student will simply be unable to absorb, but tells interesting stories that will linger in the memory...I am pleased that Professor Souyri has produced this book and I believe it will be a useful aid to undergraduate teaching... -- Tom Nelson School of Oriental & African Studies

List of Mapsp. xv
Author's Notep. xvii
A Chronology of Japanese History, with an Emphasis on the Middle Agesp. xix
The Curtain Risesp. 1
Japanese Medieval Societyp. 2
The Age of the Warriorsp. 2
Social Mobility, Revolts, and Growthp. 4
The Sourcesp. 6
Written Sourcesp. 7
Other Types of Historical Materialsp. 8
The People of Japanp. 9
Social Dynamics in the Late Heian Periodp. 17
The Court's Domination of the Provincesp. 18
The Birth of the Warrior Classp. 20
The Regime of the Retired Emperorsp. 24
The Rise of the Tairap. 27
The Crisis in the Late Twelfth Centuryp. 29
Warp. 29
Favorable Conditions in the Eastern Provincesp. 32
To the Death for the Estate!p. 36
Establishment of the Bakufup. 43
Kamakura: The Warrior Regimep. 48
The Rise of the Hojo Familyp. 49
The Bakufu and the Vassalsp. 52
Governors and Stewardsp. 54
The Law and Justicep. 56
The Mongol Invasions and the Culmination of the Kamakura Regimep. 61
Kamakura: A Society of Questionsp. 65
The Nobility in Turmoilp. 66
Chomeip. 66
Jienp. 68
The New Buddhistsp. 70
Practice or Faith?p. 70
Honenp. 72
Shinranp. 73
The Reaction of Orthodox Buddhismp. 74
Nichirenp. 75
Ippenp. 75
Zenp. 76
The Five Mountainsp. 78
The Heike: Evoking the Departedp. 80
Kamakura: A Society in Transformationp. 84
Those Who Lived Off the Land ...p. 84
The Rural Economyp. 85
The Villagep. 86
The Rise of Agricultural Productionp. 87
Trade in the Countrysidep. 87
Emancipation of the Serfsp. 88
... And Those Who Did Not Live Off the Landp. 91
The "People of the Sea"p. 93
Artisansp. 95
Dancers and Courtesansp. 96
The Pariahsp. 97
Kamakura and Kyotop. 99
The Second Middle Ages: The Turning Point of the Fourteenth Centuryp. 101
The Rise of Violence and Tensions in the Regimep. 103
A "Virtuous Government"p. 104
Bandits and People with Strange Customsp. 106
The Evil Partiesp. 106
Stone Throwingp. 108
Basarap. 108
War Again: The Fall of the Hojo Regimep. 110
The Kenmu Restorationp. 112
Civil Warp. 116
Warriors, Pirates, Peasants, and Priestsp. 121
New Governors and Landowner Leaguesp. 121
War in the Provinces and the Emergence of Governorsp. 121
Landowner Leaguesp. 124
The Growth of International Piracyp. 126
The Rise of the Peasantryp. 128
The Sop. 130
The Estates in Revolt: Shoke no ikkip. 131
Thoughts and Attitudes: From Theorists to Organizersp. 135
History As Seen by Kitabatake Chikafusap. 135
Return to Conservatism in the New Buddhismp. 138
Zen of the Five Mountainsp. 139
The Splendor and Misery of the Muromachi Century: The Culmination of the Ashikaga and the Development of Tradep. 142
The Political Cadres: Stability and Then Failure in the Ashikaga Shogunal Regimep. 143
Growth in International Tradep. 148
Okinawa: "A Bridge Between Countries"p. 151
Domestic Trade in the Archipelago: Guilds and Moneylendersp. 153
Kinai at the Heart of a Prosperous Economyp. 156
Lake Biwa and Omi Provincep. 157
From Kyoto to Hyogop. 158
The Splendor and Misery of the Muromachi Century: New Uprisings, New Culturep. 161
The Do-ikki: Cultivator Disputesp. 161
The Terrible Onin War (1467-77)p. 166
New Forms of Sociability and Artp. 170
Conditions for Art Production: Sponsorship and Discriminationp. 175
"Companions" and Ji Monksp. 175
Kawara Societyp. 176
A New Art of Living: The Chinese Style and the Creation of a "Japanese" Stylep. 178
The Sengoku Period: Communes, Religious Leagues, and Neighborhood Associationsp. 181
Overview of the Years 1480-1570p. 181
The Quest for Autonomy: Village "Communes"p. 183
Sokoku: Regional Communesp. 188
The Yamashiro Uprisingp. 188
The Iga Communep. 190
"We Who Have Faith": The Ikko Leaguesp. 192
Urban Autonomy and Self-Defensep. 195
The Machishup. 196
The Lotus Leaguesp. 198
Sakaip. 200
The Sengoku Period: Warlords Seeking Powerp. 202
The Collapse of the Shogunal Regimep. 202
Warlords: Two Examplesp. 203
The Hojo Lordsp. 203
The Imagawa Lordsp. 205
What Is a Warlord?p. 206
The New Vassalage: "A Strong Army"p. 210
The New Organization: "A Rich Country"p. 211
Reflections on Japanese Feudalismp. 213
Creating a New Orderp. 214
Notesp. 219
Glossary of Japanese Words and Namesp. 249
Bibliographyp. 257
Indexp. 263
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780231118422
ISBN-10: 0231118422
Series: Asia Perspectives: History, Society, and Culture
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 336
Published: 11th September 2001
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.47 x 16.15  x 2.26
Weight (kg): 0.54
Edition Number: 2001