Martin Covington introduces the basic principles of motivation in a readable, nontechnical form as they apply to classroom learning. He argues against the popular notion that the problems existing in schools today stem primarily from a lack of student motivation. Instead, he asserts that students are motivated, but often for the wrong reasons. Traditional teaching methods, including conventional grading procedures and an emphasis on competition, can contribute to student demoralization, and Covington identifies the ways in which students respond to misguided incentives. The book suggests practical, concrete ways that teachers can transform classroom incentives into a positive desire to learn. It features a series of illustrative exercises at the end of each chapter and includes the latest research on gender and ethnic differences in motivation and learning in schools.