William Morris (1834-1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. He was one of the principal founders of the British arts and crafts movement, best known as a designer of wallpaper and patterned fabrics, a writer of poetry and fiction and a pioneer of the socialist movement in Britain. Morris and his friends formed an artistic movement, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. They eschewed the tawdry industrial manufacture of decorative arts and architecture and favoured a return to hand-craftsmanship, raising artisans to the status of artists. He espoused the philosophy that art should be affordable, hand-made, and that there should be no hierarchy of artistic mediums. His best-known works are The Defence of Guinevere, and Other Poems (1858), Hopes and Fears for Art (1882), Chants for Socialists (1885), A Dream of John Ball: A King's Lesson (1888), The House of the Wolfings (1889), Child Christopher and Goldilind the Fair (1895), Old French Romances (1896), The Well at the World's End (1896), and The Hollow Land (1897).