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The The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean : The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Tallinn, Estonia, 27 April-1 May, 1998 - Edward Lyn Lewis

The The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean

The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Tallinn, Estonia, 27 April-1 May, 1998

By: Edward Lyn Lewis (Editor), E. Peter Jones (Editor), Peter Lemke (Editor), Terry D. Prowse (Editor), Peter Wadhams (Editor)

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Published: 31st May 2000
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The hydrological cycle of the Arctic Ocean has intimate and complex linkages to global climate: changes in one affect the other, usually with a feedback. The combined effects of large river runoff, advection of meteoric water, low evaporation rates and distillation by freezing contribute to the formation of a strong halocline in the upper Arctic ocean, which limits thermal communication between the sea ice and the warmer waters of Atlantic origin below. Sea ice and freshened surface waters are transported from the marginal seas by winds and currents, ultimately exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram and Davis Straits. Variations in the freshwater outflow from these regions affect the density structure of the Arctic Ocean itself and so the surface heat balance. Another feedback is the effect these variations have on the density profile of the water column in the Greenland and Labrador seas where, at present, convection takes place mixing surface waters downwards with those at greater depth. This downward convective motion produces dense deep waters that flow outwards from these two centres and affect the entire North Atlantic. Such deep outflows must be replaced by inward flowing waters at lesser depths. One such inward flow is the so-called North Atlantic Drift, which brings warm surface water to Northern Europe from the Gulf of Mexico. It is possible that enhanced outflow of fresher waters from the Arctic ocean may diminish this heat source. Year by year the accumulated observational evidence from diverse sources makes predictions of global climatic effects associated with changes in the freshwater flux out of the Arctic Ocean more likely to be true and gives a time scale to these potential effects. They may have very significant consequences for present human populations.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Summary Poem
Introduction
Oceanic freshwater fluxes in the climate system
Global atmospheric circulation patterns and relationships to Arctic freshwater fluxes
Atmospheric components of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance and their interannual variability
Hydroclimatology of the Arctic drainage basin
The Arctic Ocean's freshwater budget: sources, storage and export
The Arctic Ocean freshwater budget of a climate General Circulation Model
Atmospheric components of the Arctic Ocean hydrologic budget assessed from Rawinsonde data
Reanalyses depictions of the Arctic atmospheric moisture budget
Moisture transport to Arctic drainage basins relating to significant precipitation events and cyclogenesis
Atmospheric climate models: simulation of the Arctic Ocean fresh water budget components
Discharge observation networks in Arctic regions: computation of the river runoff into the Arctic Ocean, its seasonality and variability
Arctic river flow: a review of contributing areas
The dynamics of river water inflow to the Arctic Ocean
River input of water, sediment, major ions, nutrients and trace metals from Russian territory to the Arctic Ocean
The dispersion of Siberian river flows into coastal waters: meteorological, hydrological and hydrochemical aspects
The variable climate of the Mackenzie River basin: its water cycle and fresh water discharge
Arctic estuaries and ice: a positive-negative estuarine couple
Satellite views of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance
Tracer studies of the Arctic freshwater budget
Exchanges of freshwater through the shallow straits of the North American Arctic
The transformations of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean and their significance for the freshwater budget
Modelling the variability of exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic seas
Sea ice growth, melt and modeling: a survey
Fresh water freezing/melting cycle in the Arctic Ocean
Subject Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792364405
ISBN-10: 0792364406
Series: NATO Science Partnership Sub-Series 2: Environmental Security
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 623
Published: 31st May 2000
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.0 x 16.0  x 3.58
Weight (kg): 0.96