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The Sun : An Introduction - Michael Stix

The Sun

An Introduction

Hardcover

Published: 23rd January 2004
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A wealth of new experimental and theoretical results has been obtained in solar physics since the first edition of this textbook appeared in 1989. Thus all nine chapters have been thoroughly revised, and about 100 pages and many new illustrations have been added to the text. The additions include element diffusion in the solar interior, the recent neutrino experiments, methods of image restoration, observational devices used for spectroscopy and polarimetry, and new developments in helioseismology and numerical simulation. The book takes particular advantage of the results of several recent space missions, which lead to substantial progress in our understanding of the Sun, from the deep interior to the corona and solar wind.

From the reviews: "This is the definitive book on the physics of the sun, and if that's your interest, then I can thoroughly recommend it." (C.R. Kitchin, Astronomy Now, June 2003) "This is an excellent introduction to the whole of Solar physics at a consistent level of mathematics and assumed physics background. It would be suitable as a reference for some advance undergraduate courses and should be compulsory reading for postgraduate students studying the Sun. It could also be read with interest by anyone with a physics background wishing to learn more detail about the Sun than is available online or through general astrophysics books." (International Journal of Astrobiology, 2/1, 2003) "The book from the Springer Astronomy and Astrophysics Library Series gives an introduction to the physics of the Sun. [...] From an amateur solar observer's perspective, there are many parts of the book which are of interest. [...] This book has been well produced with plenty of diagrams and photographs (with a view in colour) throughout." (The Astronomer, 39/465, 2003) "This must-have book is of great value to every Sun specialist as well to students or graduates. Nearly each sub-chapter contains a small number of problems linked to the previous paragraphs, and this invitation to become a more active reader must be encouraged." (Physicalia 2005, 57, page 211-212) From the reviews of the second edition: "This book provides a solid and extremely readable introduction to the physics and the phenomenology of the solar interior and lower atmosphere ! . its status as a classic is well deserved. It is a delight to read, and I can recommend it strongly ! . the book is well presented and easy to use. It is amply and appropriately illustrated ! . The author conveniently includes bibliographic notes ! . will continue to be a basic reference text ! ." (Dr. L. Fletcher, Contemporary Physics, Vol. 46 (4), 2005) "This is a serious introduction to solar physics. ! The maths is effectively aimed at the serious senior undergraduate or post graduate student. ! This second edition updates the original 1989 publication ! . It is essentially an advanced text book with problems set throughout. ! There is a much needed list of symbols ! list of references and a comprehensive index." (Roger Feasey, Journal of the Auckland Astronomical Society, December, 2004) "The first edition, published in 1989, was excellent. It was clear, thorough, well illustrated and well referenced. ! The second edition is just as good and has been brought right up to date. ! The Sun is a member of Springer's highly commendable Astronomy and Astrophysics Library and is a first-class example of what a good textbook should be." (David W. Hughes, The Observatory, Vol. 124 (1183), 2004) "This book is an introduction to the physics of the Sun ! . This must-have book is of great value to every Sun specialist as well as to students or graduates. Nearly each sub-chapter contains a small number of problems linked to the previous paragraphs, and this invitation to become a more active reader must be encouraged." (Gaston Marrette, Physicalia, Vol. 57 (3), 2005)

Characteristics of the Sunp. 1
Distancep. 2
Massp. 3
Radiusp. 4
Luminosityp. 5
Spectral Energy Distributionp. 8
Energy Flux and Intensityp. 8
The Visiblep. 9
The Infraredp. 10
The Radio Spectrump. 11
The Ultravioletp. 12
Extreme Ultraviolet and X-raysp. 13
Color Indicesp. 14
Bibliographical Notesp. 15
Internal Structurep. 17
Construction of a Modelp. 17
The Evolutionary Sequencep. 17
The Standard Modelp. 19
Age and Pre-Main-Sequence Evolutionp. 20
Model Ingredientsp. 24
Conservation Lawsp. 24
Energy Transportp. 25
Element Diffusion in the Interiorp. 27
The Equation of Statep. 30
The Entropyp. 36
Nuclear Energy Sourcesp. 38
The Opacityp. 47
Boundary Conditions and Method of Solutionp. 51
Results for a Standard Solar Modelp. 54
General Evolutionp. 54
Neutrinosp. 57
Non-Standard Modelsp. 61
The Low Z Modelp. 62
Rapidly Rotating Corep. 62
Internal Magnetic Fieldp. 63
The Internally Mixed Modelp. 63
Bibliographical Notesp. 64
Tools for Solar Observationp. 67
Limitationsp. 67
General Difficultiesp. 67
Seeing: Description and Definitionsp. 69
Seeing: How to Live with Itp. 73
Adaptive Opticsp. 81
Image Restorationp. 83
High-Resolution Telescopesp. 85
Image Scalep. 85
Mirrors for Fixed Telescopesp. 86
Telescopes with Long Primary Focusp. 89
Telescopes with Short Primary Focusp. 94
Spectrographs and Spectrometersp. 99
The Grating Spectrographp. 99
The Fourier Transform Spectrometerp. 101
The Measurement of Line Shiftsp. 103
Filters and Monochromatorsp. 106
The Lyot Filterp. 106
Tuning: the Universal Filterp. 110
A Tunable Michelson Interferometerp. 111
The Fabry-Perot Interferometerp. 112
A Magneto-Optical Filterp. 115
A Double Monochromatorp. 116
The Spectroheliographp. 117
Polarimetryp. 118
Zeeman Splittingp. 118
Polarized Lightp. 121
Unno's Equationsp. 123
Solar Polarimetersp. 131
Scattering Polarization and Hanle Effectp. 136
Special-Purpose Instrumentsp. 137
The Pyrheliometerp. 137
Neutrino Detectorsp. 139
The Coronagraphp. 143
Bibliographical Notesp. 145
The Atmospherep. 149
Radiative Transfer - Local Thermodynamic Equilibriump. 149
The Equation of Transferp. 149
Various Equilibriap. 150
Absorption Lines in LTEp. 152
Radiative Transfer - Statistical Equilibriump. 154
Model Assumptionsp. 154
Line Radiation and Einstein Coefficientsp. 155
Continuum Radiationp. 157
Collisionsp. 158
The Source Functionp. 158
The Equations of Statistical Equilibriump. 161
Atmospheric Modelsp. 162
Limb Darkeningp. 162
Model Calculations in LTEp. 164
Models with Departures from LTEp. 169
The Chemical Composition of the Sunp. 175
Spectrum Synthesisp. 175
The Light Elements Lithium, Beryllium, and Boronp. 176
Heliump. 178
Bibliographical Notesp. 179
Oscillationsp. 181
Observationsp. 181
Five-Minute Oscillationsp. 181
The Spectrum of Solar Oscillationsp. 184
Low-Degree p Modesp. 189
Line Width and Line Asymmetryp. 193
Linear Adiabatic Oscillations of a Non-Rotating Sunp. 194
Basic Equationsp. 194
Spherical Harmonic Representationp. 195
The Cowling Approximationp. 197
Local Treatmentp. 198
Boundary Conditionsp. 205
Asymptotic Resultsp. 207
Helioseismologyp. 211
Direct Modeling and Inversionp. 211
Speed of Sound in the Solar Interiorp. 213
Depth of the Convection Zonep. 215
Chemical Constitutionp. 217
Equation of Statep. 218
Internal Mixingp. 219
Precise Determination of the Solar Radiusp. 220
Internal Rotationp. 220
Travel Time and Acoustic Imagingp. 226
Excitation and Dampingp. 229
The k Mechanismp. 229
Stochastic Excitation by Convectionp. 230
Bibliographical Notesp. 232
Convectionp. 237
Stabilityp. 237
Mixing-Length Theoryp. 239
The Local Formalismp. 240
Numerical Test Calculationsp. 243
Overshooting: A Non-local Formalismp. 245
Granulationp. 248
The Observed Patternp. 248
Modelsp. 257
Mean Line Profilesp. 261
Mesogranulationp. 265
Supergranulationp. 267
The Velocity Field and the Networkp. 267
Convective Naturep. 269
The Effect of Rotationp. 270
Giant Cellsp. 271
Tracer Resultsp. 271
Spectroscopic Resultsp. 273
Bibliographical Notesp. 274
Rotationp. 277
Axis of Rotationp. 277
Oblatenessp. 279
Originp. 279
Measurementsp. 280
Rotational Historyp. 281
The Initial Statep. 281
Torquesp. 283
Evolution of the Solar Rotationp. 286
The Angular Velocity of the Sunp. 288
The Internal Angular Velocityp. 288
The Angular Velocity at the Surfacep. 289
Meridional Circulationp. 295
Correlation of Flow Componentsp. 296
Models of a Rotating Convection Zonep. 297
Conservation of Angular Momentump. 297
Mean-Field Modelsp. 298
Explicit Modelsp. 301
Bibliographical Notesp. 303
Magnetismp. 305
Fields and Conducting Matterp. 305
The Induction Equationp. 305
Electrical Conductivity on the Sunp. 307
Frozen Magnetic Fieldp. 309
The Magnetic Forcep. 310
Flux Tubesp. 312
Concentration of Magnetic Fluxp. 312
Observational Evidence for Flux Tubesp. 318
Vertical Thin Flux Tubesp. 327
Curved Thin Flux Tubesp. 333
Thermal Structure of Photospheric Tubesp. 340
Sunspotsp. 342
Evolution and Classificationp. 342
Sunspot Modelsp. 346
Sunspots and the "Solar Constant"p. 354
Dots and Grainsp. 356
Oscillations in Sunspotsp. 359
The Evershed Effectp. 361
The Solar Cyclep. 364
Global Magnetismp. 364
Mean-Field Electrodynamicsp. 368
The Kinematic $$ Dynamop. 372
The Magnetohydrodynamic Solar Dynamop. 378
Bibliographical Notesp. 382
Chromosphere, Corona, and Solar Windp. 387
Empirical Factsp. 387
The Chromospherep. 387
The Transition Regionp. 392
The Coronap. 394
The Windp. 403
Consequences of High Temperaturep. 409
Heat Conductionp. 409
Expansionp. 411
The Magnetic Field in the Outer Atmospherep. 413
Magnetic Field Measurementsp. 413
Potential Field Extrapolationp. 414
The Force-Free Fieldp. 417
Prominencesp. 419
Magnetic Braking of Solar Rotationp. 422
The Energy Balancep. 425
Needsp. 425
Heatingp. 427
Explosive Eventsp. 431
Flares and Other Eruptionsp. 432
Release of Magnetic Energyp. 438
Bibliographical Notesp. 440
List of Symbolsp. 443
Referencesp. 453
Indexp. 485
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540207412
ISBN-10: 3540207414
Series: Astronomy and Astrophysics Library
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 492
Published: 23rd January 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.88  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.82
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised