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The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow : Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics - A.A.R. Townsend

The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow

Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics

By: A.A.R. Townsend, G. K. Batchelor (Editor), James W. Miles (Editor), Mark J. Ablowitz (Editor), S. H. Davis (Editor)

Paperback Published: 5th May 1980
ISBN: 9780521298193
Number Of Pages: 444

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Turbulent flow is a most important branch of fluid dynamics yet its complexity has tended to make it one of the least understood. Empirical data have been appearing rapidly for more than twenty years but a consistent theory of turbulent flow based on the results has been lacking. The original edition of Dr Townsend's book was the first to attempt a systematic and comprehensive discussion of all kinds of turbulent motion and to provide a reliable analysis of the processes which occur. The theory and associated concepts are applied to the description of a variety of flows: free turbulent flows such as wakes and jets, wall flows in pipes and boundary layers, flows affected by buoyancy forces such as heat plumes and the atmospheric boundary layer and flows with curved streamlines. This monograph will appeal to practitioners and researchers in engineering, meteorology, oceanography, physics and applied mathematics. This paperback edition was first issued in hard covers in 1976 as a complete revision, taking into account developments since 1955, of the first edition. It will be useful as an advanced text in applied mathematics, and the other disciplines mentioned above.

Prefacep. xi
The Statistical Description of Turbulent Flow
Introductionp. 1
The development of a theory for turbulent flowp. 3
The statistical description of turbulent flowp. 3
Notation for turbulent flowsp. 5
Three-dimensional correlation and spectrum functionsp. 6
One-dimensional correlation and spectrum functionsp. 16
Correlations and spectra with time delayp. 23
Homogeneity and symmetry of turbulent flowsp. 28
The Equations of Motion for Turbulent Flow
Assumption of a continuous fluidp. 32
The equations of fluid motionp. 33
Approximate forms of the equations of motionp. 36
Mean value equations for momentum, energy and heatp. 38
Energy dissipation by viscosityp. 41
Conductive dissipation of temperature fluctuationsp. 43
The relation between the pressure and velocity fieldsp. 43
Homogeneous Turbulent Flows
Introductionp. 45
Eddy interactions in homogeneous turbulencep. 46
Experimental approximations to homogeneous turbulencep. 49
Isotropic turbulence: generalp. 51
Reynolds number similarity in isotropic turbulencep. 53
Self-preserving development in isotropic turbulencep. 59
Space-time correlations in isotropic turbulencep. 62
The Taylor approximation of frozen flowp. 64
The tendency to isotropy of homogeneous turbulencep. 66
Uniform distortion of homogeneous turbulencep. 71
Irrotational distortion of grid turbulencep. 74
Unidirectional, plane shearing of homogeneous turbulencep. 80
Local isotropy and equilibrium of small eddiesp. 88
Measurement of spectrum and structure functionsp. 93
Energy transfer in the inertial subrangep. 99
The equilibrium spectrum in the viscous subrangep. 100
Local isotropy in non-Newtonian fluidsp. 103
Inhomogeneous Shear Flow
Large eddies and the main turbulent motionp. 105
Structural similarity of the main turbulent motionp. 106
Nature of the main turbulent motionp. 118
Generation and maintenance of the main motionp. 120
Flow inhomogeneity and the large eddiesp. 122
The dependence of Reynolds stress on mean velocityp. 124
Statistical distributions of velocity fluctuationsp. 126
Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Channels
Introductionp. 130
Equations of motion for unidirectional mean flowp. 131
Reynolds number similarity in pipe and channel flowp. 133
Wall similarity in the region of constant stressp. 135
Flow over rough wallsp. 140
Mean flow in the central regionp. 145
The turbulent motion in constant-stress equilibrium layersp. 150
Eddy structure in equilibrium layersp. 156
Motion in the viscous layer next the wallp. 163
Fluctuations of pressure and shear stress on a wallp. 165
The magnitude of the Karman constantp. 168
Turbulent flow and flow constantsp. 169
Similarity flows in channels and pipes of varying widthsp. 172
Equilibrium layers with variable stressp. 176
Equilibrium layers with linear distributions of stressp. 180
Equilibrium layers with surface transpirationp. 184
Equilibrium layers with variable direction of flowp. 186
Free Turbulent Shear flows
General properties of free turbulencep. 188
Equations of motion: the boundary-layer approximationp. 188
Integral constraints on free turbulent flowsp. 193
Self-preserving development of free turbulent flowsp. 195
The distributions of mean velocity and Reynolds stressp. 201
The balance of turbulent kinetic energyp. 205
The bounding surface of free turbulent flowsp. 209
Distributions of turbulent intensity and Reynolds stressp. 214
Flow constants for self-preserving jets and wakesp. 220
The flow constants of plane mixing layersp. 227
The entrainment of ambient fluidp. 230
Basic entrainment processesp. 232
Entrainment eddies in plane wakesp. 241
Mechanism of the entrainment eddiesp. 243
Control of the entrainment ratep. 247
Fluctuations outside the turbulent flow: sound radiationp. 248
Irrotational fluctuations in the near fieldp. 251
Development of nearly self-preserving flowsp. 252
Development of a jet in a moving stream of constant velocityp. 255
Boundary Layers and Wall Jets
Wall layers in generalp. 259
Self-preserving development of wall layersp. 262
General properties of self-preserving wall layersp. 263
Flow parameters of self-preserving wall layersp. 266
Development of self-preserving wall jetsp. 268
Development of self-preserving boundary layersp. 272
Boundary-layer development with zero wall stressp. 276
Wall layers with convergent flowp. 280
Almost self-preserving developmentp. 283
Laycrs with nearly uniform velocity in the free streamp. 287
Turbulent flow in self-preserving boundary layersp. 289
Development of boundary layers in arbitrary external conditionsp. 294
Boundary-layer development after a sudden change of external conditionsp. 298
Development in a region of strong adverse pressure gradientp. 301
Layer development after a sudden change of roughnessp. 307
Boundary layers with three-dimensional mean flowp. 312
Three-dimensional flow with negligible Reynolds stressesp. 316
Homogeneous three-dimensional flow - the Ekman layerp. 318
Secondary flow in a boundary layer with a free edgep. 323
Lateral variations of stress in boundary layersp. 328
Periodic structure of flow near the viscous layerp. 331
Turbulent Convection of Heat and Passive Contaminants
Governing equations and dimensional considerationsp. 334
Diffusion by continuous movements: effect of molecular diffusive transportp. 336
Eulerian description of convective flows: mean value equations and correlation functionsp. 338
Local forms of the Richardson numberp. 341
Spectrum functions and local similarityp. 342
Scattering of light by density fluctuations in a turbulent flowp. 348
Self-preserving development of temperature fields in forced convection flowsp. 350
Forced convection in wall flowsp. 352
Rates of heat transfer in forced convectionp. 356
Convection in a constant-stress layer after an abrupt change in wall flux or temperaturep. 361
Longitudinal diffusion in pipe flowp. 364
Natural convection and energy transferp. 366
Buoyant plumes and thermalsp. 366
The effect of buoyancy forces on turbulent motionp. 372
Horizontal wall layers with heat transportp. 375
Nature of turbulence in strongly stable flowsp. 378
Transient behaviour of boundary layers with heat transferp. 379
Convective turbulencep. 380
Heat convection between horizontal, parallel planesp. 381
Heat transfer in Benard convectionp. 384
Similarity and structure of Benard convectionp. 386
Natural convection in wall layersp. 390
Turbulent flow with Curvature of the Mean Velocity Streamlines
Mean value equations for curved flow: the analogy between the effects of flow curvature and density stratificationp. 393
Couette flow between rotating cylindersp. 398
Flow with the outer cylinder stationaryp. 400
Turbulent motion with the outer cylinder stationaryp. 404
Flow with the outer cylinder rotatingp. 407
Referencesp. 413
Indexp. 425
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521298193
ISBN-10: 0521298199
Series: Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 444
Published: 5th May 1980
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 21.74 x 14.02  x 2.79
Weight (kg): 0.61
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised

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