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The Spatial Economy : Cities, Regions, and International Trade - Masahisa Fujita

The Spatial Economy

Cities, Regions, and International Trade

Paperback Published: 27th July 2001
ISBN: 9780262561471
Number Of Pages: 382
For Ages: 18+ years old

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Winner, 43rd Nikkei Prize for Excellent Books in Economic Science. Since 1990 there has been a renaissance of theoretical and empirical work on the spatial aspects of the economy--that is, where economic activity occurs and why. Using new tools--in particular, modeling techniques developed to analyze industrial organization, international trade, and economic growth--this "new economic geography" has emerged as one of the most exciting areas of contemporary economics. The authors show how seemingly disparate models reflect a few basic themes, and in so doing they develop a common "grammar" for discussing a variety of issues. They show how a common approach that emphasizes the three-way interaction among increasing returns, transportation costs, and the movement of productive factors can be applied to a wide range of issues in urban, regional, and international economics. This book is the first to provide a sound and unified explanation of the existence of large economic agglomerations at various spatial scales.

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"The Spatial Economy provides an excellent introduction to the new geographical economics... Even if one cannot understand the calculus, the underlying principles, conclusions and limitations of the approach are stated in a succinct and lucid manner." - Steven Pinch, European Urban and Regional Studies

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
The Rediscovery of Geographyp. 1
Linkages and Circular Causationp. 4
Modeling Tricks: Dixit-Stiglitz, Icebergs, Evolution, and the Computerp. 6
Two Useful Questionsp. 9
Plan of the Bookp. 10
Some Intellectual Backgroundp. 13
Antecedents I: Urban Economicsp. 15
The von Thunen Modelp. 15
Explaining Cities: External Economiesp. 18
Urban Systemsp. 19
Multiple Subcentersp. 22
Uses and Limits of Traditional Urban Economicsp. 23
Notesp. 24
Antecedents II: Regional Sciencep. 25
Central-Place Theoryp. 26
Base-Multiplier Analysisp. 27
Market Potential Analysisp. 32
Limitations of Regional Sciencep. 33
A Brief Introduction to Bifurcationsp. 34
Notesp. 41
Labor Mobility and Regional Developmentp. 43
The Dixit-Stiglitz Model of Monopolistic Competition and Its Spatial Implicationsp. 45
Consumer Behaviorp. 46
Multiple Locations and Transport Costsp. 49
Producer Behaviorp. 50
Some Normalizationsp. 54
The Price Index Effect and the Home Market Effectp. 55
The "No-Black-Hole" Conditionp. 58
Notesp. 59
Core and Peripheryp. 61
Assumptionsp. 61
Instantaneous Equilibriump. 63
The Core-Periphery Model: Statement and Numerical Examplesp. 65
When Is a Core-Periphery Pattern Sustainable?p. 69
When is the Symmetric Equilibrium Broken?p. 71
Implications and Conclusionsp. 75
Symmetry Breakingp. 76
Notesp. 77
Many Regions and Continuous Spacep. 79
The Three-Region Casep. 79
The Racetrack Economyp. 82
The Turing Approachp. 85
The Growth Rate of a Fluctuationp. 88
Determining the Preferred Frequency: The Large Economyp. 91
From Local to Globalp. 94
Conclusionsp. 94
Simulation Parametersp. 95
Notesp. 95
Agricultural Transport Costsp. 97
Trade Costs: The Realitiesp. 97
Trade Costs: The Modelp. 99
Core-Periphery or Symmetry?p. 100
Differentiated Agricultural Productsp. 105
Conclusionsp. 110
Symmetry Breakingp. 111
Simulation Parametersp. 114
Notesp. 115
The Urban Systemp. 117
Spatial Models of Urban Systems: A Heuristic Introductionp. 119
Location Decisions and the Distribution of Demandp. 120
Sustaining and Locking In Urban Locationp. 121
Population Growth and City Formationp. 126
Urban Hierarchiesp. 128
Ports and Transportation Hubsp. 129
Conclusionsp. 131
Notesp. 132
The Monocentric Economyp. 133
The Modelp. 134
The von Thunen Economyp. 136
The Market Potential Functionp. 140
The Potential Function and the Sustainability of a Cityp. 143
On the Definition of the Market Potential Functionp. 148
The Limit Market Potential Functionp. 149
Notesp. 149
The Emergence of New Citiesp. 151
Adjustment Dynamics and the Stability of the Spatial Systemp. 152
From One City to Threep. 154
Emergence of New Cities in the Long Runp. 160
Conclusionsp. 167
Bifurcation with Costly Transport of Agricultural Goodsp. 168
Supplementary Calculations for Appendix 10.1p. 171
Adjustment Dynamics of a General Three-City Casep. 175
Notesp. 179
Evolution of a Hierarchical Urban Systemp. 181
The Formation of an Urban Hierarchy in Nineteenth-Century Americap. 182
The Modelp. 184
The Monocentric Systemp. 186
Self-Organization Toward a Hierarchical Systemp. 191
Conclusionsp. 203
The Equilibrium of the Agricultural Marketp. 205
The Equilibrium Conditions of the Monocentric Economyp. 206
The Proof that (11.16) Implies (11.17)p. 207
Notesp. 212
An Empirical Digression: The Sizes of Citiesp. 215
The Size Distribution of Citiesp. 215
Do Urban Theories Predict the Rank-Size Rule?p. 217
Can Random Growth Explain the Rank-Size Rule?p. 219
Conclusionsp. 225
Notep. 225
Ports, Transportation Hubs, and City Locationp. 227
The Monocentric Economyp. 228
The Impact of a Transportation Hub on the Market Potential Functionp. 231
Patterns of Spatial Evolutionp. 233
Conclusionsp. 235
Notesp. 236
International Tradep. 237
International Specializationp. 239
A Model with Intermediate Goodsp. 241
The Structure of Equilibriap. 245
Agglomeration and National Inequalitiesp. 251
Decreasing Returns in Agriculturep. 256
Conclusionsp. 259
Symmetry Breakingp. 260
Simulation Parametersp. 261
Notesp. 261
Economic Development and the Spread of Industryp. 263
Growth and Sustainable Wage Differentialsp. 264
Many Industries and Many Countriesp. 270
Conclusionsp. 277
The Multicountry, Multi-Industry Modelp. 278
Simulation Parametersp. 280
Notesp. 281
Industrial Clusteringp. 283
Industrial Clusters: The Evidencep. 284
Industrial Clusters: The Modelp. 285
Concentration or Dispersion?p. 287
Adjustment and Real Incomep. 291
Multiple Factors: Industrial Clustering in a Heckscher-Ohlin Worldp. 293
Multiple Industries and Sustainable Cross-Country Differencesp. 298
Conclusionsp. 303
Symmetry Breakingp. 304
Adjustment and Real Incomep. 305
The Production Possibility Frontierp. 306
Multiple Industriesp. 306
Simulation Parametersp. 307
Notesp. 307
A Seamless Worldp. 309
The Modelp. 310
The Frequency of Agglomerationp. 313
From Local to Globalp. 317
Punctuated Equilibriump. 319
Multiple Industriesp. 321
Center and Peripheryp. 322
Conclusionsp. 325
Symmetry Breakingp. 325
Simulation Parametersp. 326
Notesp. 327
External Trade and Internal Geographyp. 329
Urban Concentration in an Open Economyp. 331
The Effects of Trade Liberalizationp. 332
Industrial Clustering and External Tradep. 335
Industrial Structure and Urban Concentrationp. 338
Conclusionsp. 340
Symmetry Breakingp. 341
Simulation Parametersp. 343
Notesp. 343
The Way Forwardp. 345
The Theoretical Menup. 346
Empirical Workp. 347
Quantificationp. 347
Welfare Implicationsp. 348
Where We Standp. 349
Referencesp. 351
Indexp. 357
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262561471
ISBN-10: 0262561476
Series: The Spatial Economy
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 382
Published: 27th July 2001
Publisher: MIT Press Ltd
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.0 x 15.1  x 1.9
Weight (kg): 0.52