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The Semantic Turn : A New Foundation for Design - Klaus Krippendorff

The Semantic Turn

A New Foundation for Design

Hardcover Published: 21st December 2005
ISBN: 9780415322201
Number Of Pages: 368

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Responding to cultural demands for meaning, user-friendliness, and fun as well as the opportunities of the emerging information society, The Semantic Turn boldly outlines a new science for design that gives designers previously unavailable grounds on which to state their claims and validate their designs. It sets the stage by reviewing the history of semantic concerns in design, presenting their philosophical roots, examining the new social and technological challenges that professional designers are facing, and offering distinctions among contemporary artifacts that challenge designers.

Written by Klaus Krippendorff, recognized designer and distinguished scholar of communication and language use, the book builds an epistemological bridge between language/communication theory and human-centered conceptions of contemporary artifacts. Clarifying how the semantic turn goes beyond product semantics and differs from other approaches to meaning, Krippendorff develops four new theories of how artifacts make sense and presents a series of meaning-sensitive design methods, illustrated by examples, and evaluative techniques that radically depart from the functionalist and technology-centered tradition in design.

An indispensable guide for the future of the design profession, this book outlines not only a science for design that encourages asking and answering new kinds of questions, it also provides concepts and a vocabulary that enables designers to better partner with the more traditional disciplines of engineering, ergonomics, ecology, cognitive science, information technology, management, and marketing.

"A brilliant book so superbly designed, encompassing theory and application. Klaus Krippendorff demonstrates his authority in the semantics of design with a bold inter-disciplinary approach. The book unveils a systematic design discourse, treating readers to rare critiques of established ideas and illustrative reviews of design cases. it must be read by designers and non-designers alike." -- Professor Halimahtun M. Khalid, Director, Institute of Design and Ergonomics Applications, University of Malaysia "a major contribution to design thinking. Klaus Krippendorff's philosophy addresses how we create and use artifacts in view of the meanings we give them. It builds a human and systematic foundation for professional design practice based on creative engagement with users and stakeholders. Krippendorff's intellectual journey reflects the central themes in design and design research today, helping new designers think their way into the field." -- Professor Ken Friedman, Norwegian School of Management and Denmark's Design School "a courageous outline for a concrete science for design that paradigmatically deviates from the natural sciences. Itoffers designers a solid ground from which to justify their products and environments...proposes systematically human-centered design methods, and an epistemology for improving the world rather than re-searching it. a major step into a fascinating future for all of us." -- Professor Emeritus Shutaro Mukai, Former Director, Department of Science of Design, Musahino Art University, Tokyo, Japan "takes design theory to a new levelBrilliantly building on Wittgenstein and generalizing classical accounts of affordancesThis highly readable book is especiallyrelevant to the challenges we face in designing in and for a global economy." -- John Seely Brown, Former Chief Scientist, Xerox Corporation & Director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)

Forewordp. xiii
Introduction and Overviewp. xv
History and aimp. 1
Brief history of product semanticsp. 1
Trajectory of artificialityp. 5
Productsp. 6
Goods, services, and identitiesp. 7
Interfacesp. 8
Multiuser systems and networksp. 9
Projectsp. 10
Discoursesp. 11
The changing environment of designp. 13
Societyp. 13
Technologyp. 15
Manufacturep. 16
Computer aided design (CAD)p. 17
Design managementp. 18
Market researchp. 19
Philosophy's linguistic turnp. 20
Redesigning design (discourse)p. 23
Discoursep. 23
Designp. 25
Design discoursep. 32
Basic concepts of human-centered designp. 39
Predecessorsp. 40
The axiomaticity of meaningp. 47
Sense, meaning, and contextp. 50
Sensep. 50
Meaningp. 52
Contextp. 59
Stakeholders in designp. 63
Second-order understandingp. 65
Ethics in a design culturep. 70
Meaning of artifacts in usep. 77
Interfacesp. 78
Disruptions and usabilityp. 84
Recognitionp. 91
Categoriesp. 91
Visual metaphorsp. 95
Attractivenessp. 102
Explorationsp. 104
User conceptual modelsp. 105
Constraintsp. 108
Affordancesp. 111
Metonymsp. 114
Informativesp. 117
Semantic layersp. 129
Reliancep. 132
Scenariosp. 133
Intrinsic motivationp. 136
Principles for designing usabilityp. 140
Human-centerednessp. 141
Meaningful interfacesp. 141
Second-order understandingp. 141
Affordancesp. 142
Constraintsp. 142
Feedbackp. 142
Coherencep. 142
Learnabilityp. 143
Multisensory redundancyp. 143
Variability - diversityp. 144
Robustnessp. 144
Delegation of designp. 145
Meaning of artifacts in languagep. 147
Languagep. 150
Categoriesp. 152
Charactersp. 155
Identitiesp. 162
Verbal metaphorsp. 166
Narrativesp. 169
Culturep. 175
Meaning in the lives of artifactsp. 177
Life cyclesp. 179
Stakeholder networksp. 180
Projectsp. 183
Genetic meaningsp. 184
Critical sizes of supportive communitiesp. 187
Whole life cycle accountingp. 189
Meaning in an ecology of artifactsp. 193
Ecologyp. 193
Ecology of artifactsp. 194
Ecological meaningsp. 198
Technological cooperativesp. 202
Mythologyp. 203
Design methods, research, and a science for designp. 207
A new science for designp. 209
Methods for creating spaces of possible futuresp. 213
Brainstormingp. 213
Reframingp. 214
Combinatoricsp. 217
Methods for inquiring into stakeholders' concepts and motivationsp. 221
Narratives of ideal futuresp. 222
Surveys and structured interviewsp. 223
Unstructured interviewsp. 223
Focus groupsp. 224
Observational methodsp. 225
Protocol analysisp. 226
Ethnographyp. 226
Triangulation of methodsp. 227
Stakeholder participation in the design processp. 228
Human-centered design methodsp. 230
(Re)designing the characters of artifactsp. 232
Designing artifacts that are informative (expressive) of their workingsp. 240
Designing original artifacts, guided by narratives and metaphorsp. 245
Designing human-centered design strategiesp. 254
Dialogical ways to designp. 258
Validating semantic claimsp. 260
Advancing design discoursep. 267
Postdesign researchp. 269
Design literaturep. 269
Institutionalizationsp. 270
Self-reflectionp. 270
Distantiationsp. 273
Semioticsp. 273
Cognitivismp. 278
Ergonomicsp. 279
Aestheticsp. 283
Functionalismp. 285
Marketingp. 288
Textualismp. 291
Roots in the Ulm School of Design?p. 297
Bill's functionalismp. 298
Bense's information philosophyp. 303
Maldonado's semioticsp. 305
Chernyshevsky's political economy of aestheticsp. 308
Rittel's methodologyp. 310
Barriers to considerations of meaning and some exceptionsp. 313
Referencesp. 323
Creditsp. 335
Indexp. 337
About the Authorp. 347
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780415322201
ISBN-10: 0415322200
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 368
Published: 21st December 2005
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.9  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.64
Edition Number: 1