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The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces : Radar Library - Peter Beckman

The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces

Radar Library


Published: 19th March 1987
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Introductionp. 3
Qualitative Considerationsp. 9
The Rayleigh Criterionp. 9
The Location and Size of the Active Scattering Regionp. 10
The General Kirchhoff Solution for Scattering from Rough Surfacesp. 17
General Solution for a Surface Rough in One Dimensionp. 17
General Solution for a Surface Rough in Both Dimensionsp. 25
Properties of the General Solutionp. 28
Periodically Rough Surfacesp. 34
General Kirchhoff Solution of the Field Scattered by a Perfectly Conducting Periodic Surfacep. 35
The Rayleigh Methodp. 41
Application to Specific Profilesp. 47
Sinusoidal surfacesp. 47
Surfaces generated by superpositionp. 57
Saw-tooth profilesp. 58
Rectangular corrugationsp. 59
Regular distributions of bosses on a planep. 66
Finite Conductivityp. 67
Random Rough Surfaces: I. Surfaces Generated by Random Processesp. 70
Classification of Approachesp. 70
Rough Surfaces as Random Processesp. 72
The Normally Distributed Surfacep. 80
Finite Conductivityp. 97
Random Rough Surfaces: II. Other Modelsp. 99
Twersky: Bosses on a Conducting Planep. 99
Ament: Randomly Spaced Half-Planesp. 105
Rice: A Randomized Rayleigh Methodp. 107
Beckmann: Facet Surface Generated by a Markov Chainp. 109
Du Castel and Spizzichino: Surface of "Brilliant Points"p. 114
Other Models--A Guide to the Literaturep. 117
The Statistical Distribution of the Scattered Fieldp. 119
The Probability Distribution of the Sum of Arbitrary Random Coplanar Vectorsp. 120
The Statistical Distribution of the Amplitude of the Scattered Fieldp. 137
Coherence and Incoherence of the Scattered Fieldp. 146
The Depolarization of Electromagnetic Waves Scattered From a Rough Surfacep. 152
The Depolarization Factorp. 153
Depolarization by a Smooth Planep. 160
Depolarization by a Rough Surface in the Plane of Incidencep. 161
The Depolarization of Laterally Scattered Wavesp. 167
Conclusionp. 176
A Note on the Helmholtz Integralp. 178
Formulae from the Theory of Bessel Functionsp. 182
Formulae from Probability Theoryp. 185
The Distribution of Slopes of a Normally Distributed Surfacep. 193
Evaluation of an Integralp. 195
Curves of the Scattered-Field Distributionp. 199
Introductionp. 215
Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves ay a Perfectly Smooth Earthp. 218
The Reflection Coefficient of a Perfectly Plane Earthp. 218
Effect of the Earth's Curvaturep. 222
Interference of the Direct and Reflected Raysp. 224
Annex: Nomograms of quantities determining the reflection of electromagnetic waves by a smooth, spherical earthp. 229
The Reflection of Waves from Irregular Groundp. 239
Qualitative Description of Scattering Phenomena: Criterions of Roughnessp. 239
Specular Reflection and Diffuse Scatteringp. 241
Quantitative Investigation of Specular Reflection in Radio Linksp. 244
Quantitative Investigation of Diffuse Scattering: Mean Value of the Scattered Fieldp. 249
Theoretical foundationsp. 251
Practical Applicationp. 255
Case I: Link between two points in the vicinity of the earth, "glistening surface" limited by the irregularities of the groundp. 257
Case II: Terminals of the link near the earth, "glistening surface" bounded by the antenna patternsp. 266
Case III: One terminal near the ground, the other at infinityp. 275
The Statistical Distribution of the Scattered Fieldp. 277
Interference of the Direct Wave with the Diffusely Scattered Componentp. 278
The statistical distribution of the received fieldp. 278
The radius of autocorrelationp. 280
The Depolarization of the Diffusely Scattered Componentp. 285
Annex: Practical determination of the first Fresnel ellipse in some special casesp. 285
Methods of Measurement of the Reflection Coefficients of the Earth; Separation of the Specular and Diffuse Componentsp. 292
Measurement of the Specular Reflection Coefficient of the Earth (in the Absence of Diffuse Scattering)p. 292
Separation of the reflected rayp. 292
Interference of the direct with the reflected wavep. 293
Measurement of the Diffuse-reflection Coefficient of the Earth (in the absence of specular reflection)p. 298
Separation of the scattered wavep. 298
Interference of the direct and scattered wavesp. 299
Separation of the Specular and Diffuse Componentsp. 300
Separation of the reflected wave; goniometryp. 300
Interference of the direct and reflected wavesp. 305
Annex: Characteristics of some experimental radio paths used to measure the reflection coefficient of the earth's surfacep. 311
Experimental Investigation of the Specular Reflection Coefficient of the Earthp. 316
Parameters Determining the Reflection Coefficientp. 316
Experimental Investigation of the Scattering Coefficient [rho][subscript s]p. 317
Dependence of the Reflection Coefficient on Frequency and on the Dimensions of the Irregularitiesp. 321
Dependence on the Grazing Anglep. 322
Dependence on Polarizationp. 323
Dependence on Meteorologic Conditionsp. 324
Very Irregular Terrain--Multiple Reflectionsp. 328
Fluctuations of the Resultant Fieldp. 332
Experimental Investigation of Diffuse Scattering from the Earth's Surfacep. 334
Survey of the Cases to be Consideredp. 334
Results of Some Experiments Satisfying Conditions (a) to (f)p. 335
Very Directional Antennaep. 338
Effect of Vegetationp. 339
Irregularities of the Ground Smaller than half the Space-wavelength: Diffuse Scattering Superimposed onto Strong Specular Reflectionp. 340
Irregularities Distributed along a Privileged Directionp. 340
Vertically Polarized Waves Incident near the Brewster Anglep. 341
Deflection of Antenna Beams: Dimensions of the "Glistening Surface"p. 341
Depolarizationp. 344
Conclusions: The Rayleigh Criterionp. 345
Specular Reflection: Practical Applications: Line-of-sight Propagation of Ultra-short Wavesp. 347
Fieldstrength in Line-of-Sight Links. Origin of Fadingsp. 347
Slow and Rapid Components of Fluctuations in Line-of-Sight Linksp. 355
Relative Importance of Specular Reflection and Other Components in Lineof-Sight Linksp. 357
Line-of-Sight Paths: Statistical Distribution of the Received Fieldp. 358
Fading due to Specular Reflectionp. 371
Diversity Reception on Line-of-Sight Pathsp. 375
Radar Coveragep. 378
Communication by Specular Reflection (without Visibility)p. 380
Annex: Characteristics of some experimental pathsp. 382
Diffuse Scattering: I. Practical Applicationsp. 389
Line-of-Sight Pathsp. 389
Communication by Diffuse Ground Reflections without Direct Visibilityp. 392
Scattering of Solar Radication by the Earth--Albedop. 393
Diffuse Scattering: II. Application to Back-scattering by the Earth's Surfacep. 398
The Back-scattering Cross-Sectionp. 398
Back-Scatter by the Sea at Large Grazing Anglesp. 402
Back-Scatter by Terrain at Large Grazing Anglesp. 410
Back-scattering by the Sea at Small Grazing Anglesp. 411
Scattering by Atmospheric Sheetsp. 418
Some Data on the Structure of the Tropospherep. 418
Theory of Reflection by Tropospheric Sheetsp. 424
Tropospheric Scatter Propagation--the Mean Field beyond the Horizonp. 430
Tropospheric Scatter Propagation--Fieldstrength Fluctuations, Bandwidth Limitations, Diversity Effectsp. 433
Some Experimental Verificationsp. 443
Ionospheric and Exospheric Sheetsp. 451
Reflection of Radio Waves by the Moon and the Planetsp. 454
Problems Posed by the Reflection of Radio Waves by the Moonp. 454
Reflections by the Rough Surface of the Moon--Theoryp. 456
Reflections by the Rough Surface of the Moon--Experimental investigationsp. 462
Reflections of Radio Waves from Venus and from the Sunp. 469
Annex: Tables of data on experiments with moon reflections quoted in Chapter 20p. 472
Conclusionp. 474
Bibliographyp. 476
Author Indexp. 493
Subject Indexp. 497
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890062388
ISBN-10: 0890062382
Series: Radar Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 511
Published: 19th March 1987
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 3.3
Weight (kg): 0.96
Edition Type: New edition