The discovery in 1936 of a complete MS, of Mātrceta's 'Hymn of 150 Verses', previously known only from fragments in Tibetan and Chinese translations, was an important addition to Sanskrit literature. The Hymn is one of the earliest of Buddhist Sanskrit poems; it was once famous in the Buddhist world and for many centuries held unequalled popularity among Northern Buddhists. It is also the only known survivor of works attributed to Mātrceta, an author whose personality is one of the puzzles of Indian literary history. Shackleton Bailey has edited his own English version and notes, the original text, together with Tibetan and Chinese translations. His introduction was the first critical study of the work, first published in 1951.