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The Right Skills for the Job? : Rethinking Training Policies for Workers - World Bank

The Right Skills for the Job?

Rethinking Training Policies for Workers

By: World Bank, Rita Almeida (Editor), Jere R. Behrman (Editor), David A. Robalino (Editor)

Paperback Published: 19th July 2012
ISBN: 9780821387146
Number Of Pages: 169

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Creating jobs and increasing productivity are at the top of agenda for policymakers across the world. Knowledge accumulation and skills are recognized as central in this process. More-educated workers not only have better employment opportunities, earn more, and have more stable and rewarding jobs, but also they are more adaptable and mobile. Workers who acquire more skills also make other workers and capital more productive and, within the firm, they facilitate the adaptation, adoption, and ultimately invention of new technologies. This is crucial to enable economic diversification, productivity growth, and ultimately raise the standards of living of the population. This report brings new ideas on how to build and upgrade job relevant skills, focusing on three types of training programs relevant for individuals who are leaving the formal general schooling system or are already in the labor market: pre-employment technical and vocational education and training (TVET); on-the-job training (OJT); and training-related active labor market programs (ALMPs). Several previous studies have discussed some of the flaws in current systems and outlined options for reform. As a consequence, there has been a shift away from the investment in pre-vocational training courses to programs to improve access to and the quality of general secondary education. There have also been calls to encourage a stronger involvement of the private sector in the provision of training, together with increased emphasis in the quality and relevance of the content. One result has been a push to rethink the governance and financing arrangements of training institutions. But overall policies at these three levels of the training systems remain disconnected and there has not been an integrated framework linking them to the market and government failures that need to be addressed. This book makes two important contributions. First, it takes an in-depth look at the types of market and government failures that can result in underinvestment in training or the supply of skills that are not immediately relevant to the labor market. Second, building on the analysis of the limitations of both markets and governments and the results of case studies and recent impact evaluations, the report develops new ideas to improve the design and performance of current training systems.

Forewordp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Abbreviationsp. xv
Introductionp. 1
Market Failures, OJT, and Training-Related ALMPsp. 3
Government Failures and TVETp. 4
An Agenda for Research and Policy Analysisp. 6
Notesp. 6
Referencesp. 8
Overviewp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Linking Market and Government Failures to the Design of Training-Related Interventionsp. 15
Implications for Training Programsp. 19
Open Methodological and Policy Questions: Building a Research and Operational Agendap. 34
Notesp. 39
Referencesp. 44
Policy Framework: The Economic Rationale for Skills Development Policiesp. 49
Why Do Markers Fail in the Provision of Training and How Can Policies Help?p. 50
Why Do Governments Also Fail in the Provision of Training?p. 58
Conclusionp. 62
Notesp. 64
Referencesp. 65
Pre-Employment Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Fostering Relevance, Effectiveness, and Efficiencyp. 67
Introductionp. 67
Participation in Pre-Employment TVETp. 69
Labor Market Outcomes of TVET Programsp. 71
Skills Demand and Skills Acquisition through Pre-Employment TVETp. 76
Policy Challenges in Pre-Employment TVETp. 78
Conclusionp. 93
Notesp. 94
Referencesp. 97
Annex: Detailed Date Sources for Table 3.1p. 103
Employer-Provided Training: Patterns and Incentives for Building Skills for Higher Productivityp. 105
On-the-Job Training: What We Know and Where We Arep. 108
Promoting On-the-Job Trainingp. 116
Conclusionp. 126
Notesp. 128
Referencesp. 130
Training Programs for the Unemployed, Low-Income, and Low-Skilled Workersp. 133
A Typology of Target Populations for Training Programsp. 134
Training-Related Active Labor Market Policies around the Worldp. 143
Addressing Market Failures in the Provision of Trainingp. 146
Toward a Blueprint for Training-Related ALMPsp. 161
Conclusionp. 164
Notesp. 165
Referencesp. 166
Defining Job-Relevant Skills and Acknowledging the Boundaries of Job Training Policiesp. 13
Recent Developments in International Skills Assessmentsp. 35
Identifying Market Failures through Impact Evaluations: Spotlight on Turkeyp. 37
Looking at the Hospitality and Construction Sectors in Cambodia: Skills Gaps and Mismatches for University Graduatesp. 55
Challenges in National Training Funds to Promote Job-Relevant Skillsp. 58
Employers' Views on the Role of Pre-Employment Vocational Training in England and Polandp. 79
Demand-Led Pre-Employment TVET for Economic Growth in Singaporep. 83
Private Sector-Led Pre-Employment TVET for Construction Workers in Indiap. 87
Germany: An Institutional Arrangement for Contractibilityp. 117
The Republic of Korea: A Training Consortium for Small and Medium Enterprisesp. 121
Kenya: Training Vouchers for Small and Medium Enterprisesp. 123
Mexico: Building in Monitoring and Evaluation Systemsp. 125
Benefits and Costs of the Jóvenes Training Programs for Unskilled Youths in Latin Americap. 148
Benin Support Project for the Development of On-the-Job Vocational Trainingp. 150
Training and Public Works in Argentina and El Salvadorp. 153
Promoting Self-Employment Training in the Middle East and North Africap. 156
Training and Retraining for Displaced Workers in Romaniap. 157
The New Deal for Young People in the United Kingdomp. 159
Demand for Different Types of Skills in the United States, 1960-2002p. 12
Reasons for Market Failuresp. 15
Degree of Competition in a Skills Market and the Poaching Externalityp. 52
Vocational Training Skills Gapp. 55
Foreign Language Proficiency and Behavioral Skills Gapsp. 56
The Main Actors in the Provision of Skillsp. 60
Share of TVET Enrollments at the Upper Secondary Level, by Region and in Relation to Per Capita GDPp. 70
Employment and Earnings among Graduates of TVET and Academic Programs, OECD Countries, 2007p. 72
Training Programs and the Building of Job-Relevant Skillsp. 78
Employability Skills Prioritized by English and Polish Employers, 2008 and 2009, Respectivelyp. 79
Evolution of EDB's Skills Development Schemes, 1972-93p. 84
Training Incidence, Economic Development, and Human Capitalp. 113
Reasons for Not Investing in OJT in Central Americap. 115
Level of Education of the Labor Force by GDP per Capitap. 140
Decompositions and Projections of the Labor Force by Level of Educationp. 138
Unemployment Risks for Formal and Informal Sector Workers in Brazilp. 142
Regional Breakdown of Evaluations of Training Programs for Low-Skilled and Unskilled Workersp. 145
An Integrated Training System for Unemployed, Low-Income, and Low-Skilled Workersp. 162
The Training Market: Market Failures and Suggested Policy Interventionsp. 50
The Training Market: Government Failures and Policy Recommendationsp. 59
Returns to TVET and Other Labor Market Outcomes in Selected Developing Countriesp. 73
Effects of OJT on Wages and Productivity: Evidence from Selected Countriesp. 110
Summary of Market Failures in OJT and the Corresponding Policiesp. 127
Unemployment Rates by Level of Education, Regional Aggregatesp. 140
Suggested Policy Interventions by Target Group and Training Market Failuresp. 144
Incidence of Evaluations of Training Programs by Target Groupp. 144
Impact and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Jóvenes Programs in Latin Americap. 148
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780821387146
ISBN-10: 0821387146
Series: Human Development Perspectives (Paperback)
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 169
Published: 19th July 2012
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.91 x 15.19  x 1.02
Weight (kg): 0.26

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