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The Principles of Experimental Research - K Srinagesh

The Principles of Experimental Research

Hardcover

Published: 1st December 2005
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The need to understand how to design and set up an investigative experiment is nearly universal to all students in engineering, applied technology and science, as well as many of the social sciences. Many schools offer courses in this fundamental skill and this book is meant to offer an easily accessible introduction to the essential tools needed, including an understanding of logical processes, how to use measurement, the do's and don'ts of designing experiments so as to achieve reproducible results and the basic mathematical underpinnings of how data should be analyzed and interpreted. The subject is also taught as part of courses on Engineering statistics, Quality Control in Manufacturing, and Senior Design Project, in which conducting experimental research is usually integral to the project in question.
* Covers such essential fundamentals as "definitions," "quantification," and standardization of test materials
* Shows students and professionals alike how to plan an experiment-from how to frame a proper Hypothesis to designing an experiment to accurately reflect the nature of the problem to "designing with factors."
* Includes a separate section on the use of Statistics in Experimental Research, including overview of probability and statistics, as well as Randomization, Replication and Sampling, as well as proper ways to draw statistical inferences from experimental data.

Prefacep. xvii
Experimental Research in Science: Its Name and Naturep. 1
Defining Sciencep. 1
Science: Play or Profession?p. 3
Science and Researchp. 5
Varieties of Experimental Researchp. 7
Conventional Researchersp. 9
Bibliographyp. 11
The Fundamentalsp. 13
The Importance of Definitionsp. 15
Toward Definitionp. 15
Defining "Definition"p. 17
Common Terms Used in Definitionsp. 18
Varieties of Definitionsp. 19
Need for Definitionsp. 24
What Definitions Should and Should Not Dop. 25
Referencesp. 28
Bibliographyp. 28
Aspects of Quantificationp. 29
Quantity and Qualityp. 29
The Uses of Numbersp. 30
An Intellectual Close-up of Countingp. 32
The Process of Measurementp. 33
Quantities and Measurementsp. 35
Derived Quantitiesp. 37
Units for Measurementp. 38
Fundamental Quantities and Dimensionsp. 38
Dimensional Analysisp. 40
Accuracy versus Approximationp. 43
Bibliographyp. 45
The Purpose and Principles Involved in Experimentingp. 47
The Purpose of Experimentingp. 47
Cause and Effectp. 48
Pertinence and Forms of Causep. 50
Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiryp. 51
Planning for the Experimentp. 56
Standardization of Test Material(s)p. 57
Reproducibilityp. 58
Number of "Experiments"p. 59
Referencesp. 60
Bibliographyp. 60
Planning the Experimentsp. 61
Defining the Problem for Experimental Researchp. 63
To Define a Problemp. 63
Relation of the Problem to Resourcesp. 65
Relevance of the Problemp. 67
Extent of the Problemp. 67
Problem: Qualitative or Quantitative?p. 69
Can the Problem Be Reshaped?p. 70
Proverbs on Problemsp. 71
Referencesp. 72
Bibliographyp. 73
Stating the Problem as a Hypothesisp. 75
The Place of Hypothesis in Researchp. 75
Desirable Qualities of Hypothesesp. 80
Bibliographyp. 83
Designing Experiments to Suit Problemsp. 85
Several Problems, Several Causesp. 85
Treatment Structuresp. 88
Many Factors at Many Levels, but One Factor at a Timep. 89
Factorial Design, the Right Wayp. 92
Too Many Factors on Hand?p. 93
"Subjects-and-Controls" Experimentsp. 94
Combined Effect of Many Causesp. 98
Unavoidable ("Nuisance") Factorsp. 99
Bibliographyp. 99
Dealing with Factorsp. 101
Designing Factorsp. 101
Experiments with Designed Factorsp. 102
Matrix of Factorsp. 105
Remarks on Experiments with Two-Level Factorsp. 111
Response of Multifactor Experimentsp. 111
Experiments with More Factors, Each at Two Levelsp. 116
Fractional Factorialsp. 123
Varieties of Factorsp. 125
Levels of Factorsp. 129
Bibliographyp. 131
Factors at More Than Two Levelsp. 133
Limitations of Experiments with Factors at Two Levelsp. 133
Four-Level Factorial Experimentsp. 134
Interactionsp. 139
Main Effectsp. 140
More on Interactionsp. 143
More Factors at More Than Two Levelsp. 144
Bibliographyp. 153
The Craft Part of Experimental Researchp. 155
Searching through Published Literaturep. 157
Researcher and Scholarp. 157
Literature in Printp. 158
Overdoing?p. 160
After the Climbp. 161
Bibliographyp. 162
Building the Experimental Setupp. 163
Diversity to Match the Needp. 163
Designing the Apparatusp. 164
Simplicity, Compactness, and Elegancep. 165
Measuring Instrumentsp. 166
Calibrationp. 168
Researcher as Handymanp. 170
Cost Considerationsp. 171
Bibliographyp. 174
The Art of Reasoning in Scientific Researchp. 175
Logic and Scientific Researchp. 177
The Subject, Logicp. 177
Some Terms in Logicp. 179
Induction versus Deductionp. 185
Referencesp. 187
Bibliographyp. 187
Inferential Logic for Experimental Researchp. 189
Inferential Logic and Experimental Researchp. 189
Logical Fallaciesp. 190
Argumentp. 194
Categorical Propositionsp. 195
Conventions, Symbolism, and Relations among Categorical Propositionsp. 196
Diagrammatic Representation of Categorical Propositionsp. 201
Categorical Syllogismsp. 203
Ordinary Language and Argumentsp. 211
Referencesp. 216
Bibliographyp. 216
Use of Symbolic Logicp. 217
The Need for Symbolic Logicp. 217
Symbols in Place of Wordsp. 219
Conjunctionp. 219
Truth Tablesp. 220
Disjunctionp. 221
Negationp. 223
Conditional Statementsp. 223
Material Implicationp. 227
Punctuation in Symbolic Logicp. 227
Equivalence: "Material" and "Logical"p. 228
Application of Symbolic Logicp. 230
Validity of Argumentsp. 231
Referencep. 232
Bibliographyp. 232
Probability and Statistics for Experimental Researchp. 233
Introduction to Probability and Statisticsp. 235
Relevance of Probability and Statistics in Experimental Researchp. 235
Defining the Terms: Probability and Statisticsp. 238
Relation between Probability and Statisticsp. 239
Philosophy of Probabilityp. 240
Logic of Probability and Statisticsp. 241
Quantitative Probabilityp. 241
Nature of Statisticsp. 247
Measures of Central Tendency (Average)p. 249
Measures of Dispersionp. 256
Tabular Presentations of Statistical Datap. 261
Grouping the Datap. 265
Graphical Presentations of Datap. 268
Normal Distribution Curvep. 274
Frequency Distributions That Are Not Normalp. 277
Referencesp. 280
Bibliographyp. 280
Randomization, Replication, and Samplingp. 281
Need for Randomizationp. 281
Applications of Randomizationp. 284
Methods of Randomizationp. 288
Meaning of Randomizationp. 290
Replicationp. 291
Samples and Samplingp. 292
Notions of Setp. 294
Permutations and Combinationsp. 297
Quantitative Statement of Randomizationp. 301
Sampling Methodsp. 302
Bibliographyp. 305
Further Significance of Samplesp. 307
Inference from Samplesp. 307
Theoretical Sampling Distribution of Xp. 308
Central Limit Theoremp. 314
Standard Normal Distributionp. 316
Frequency Distribution and Probability Functionp. 317
Standard Normal Curvep. 321
Questions/Answers Using the APSND Tablep. 329
Bibliographyp. 331
Planning the Experiments in Statistical Termsp. 333
Guiding Principlesp. 333
Some Preliminaries for Planned Experimentsp. 335
Null and Alternate Hypothesesp. 337
Accepting (or Rejecting) Hypotheses: Objective Criteriap. 344
Procedures for Planning the Experimentsp. 346
Other Situation Setsp. 357
Operating Characteristic Curvep. 362
Sequential Experimentingp. 366
Concluding Remarks on the Proceduresp. 371
Bibliographyp. 372
Statistical Inference from Experimental Datap. 373
The Way to Inferencep. 373
Estimation (From Sample Mean to Population Mean)p. 375
Testing of Hypothesisp. 382
Regression and Correlationp. 385
Multiple Regressionp. 391
Bibliographyp. 393
Indexp. 395
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780750679268
ISBN-10: 0750679263
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 432
Published: 1st December 2005
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.68