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The Physics of Traffic : Empirical Freeway Pattern Features, Engineering Applications, and Theory - Boris S. Kerner

The Physics of Traffic

Empirical Freeway Pattern Features, Engineering Applications, and Theory

Hardcover Published: 19th November 2004
ISBN: 9783540207160
Number Of Pages: 682

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This book is devoted to the explanation of freeway traffic congestion, a fact of life for many car drivers. Results of empirical observations of freeway congestion, which exhibit diverse complex spatiotemporal patterns including moving traffic jams, are analyzed. Empirical features of these reproducible freeway traffic patterns only recently sufficiently well understood are reviewed. In the first part, three-phase traffic theory can be found, which is the basis for a physical theory of traffic phenomena and its applications in engineering. In the second part, the empirical spatiotemporal patterns are examined and, finally in parts III and IV, the mathematical model and the engineering applications are addressed. The Physics of Traffic addresses researchers and practitioners alike.

From the reviews:

"For the analysis of complex spatiotemporal behaviour of traffic on motorways Kerner's book severs as an important basis for freeway traffic science that can be valuable for traffic scientists and engineers in solving many tasks in traffic engineering." (Hartmut Keller, tec-Traffic Engineering and Control International Journal of Traffic Management and Transportation Planning 2005, vol. 46, page 72-73)

"I commend Boris Kerner on his pioneering research on a new traffic theory... [This] is the first book I have read that offers detailed discussions about traffic congestion on freeways." --Henry Lieu, in Physics Today, November 2005

"Key topic of the book is the description of empirical spatiotemporal behaviour of traffic based on the Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. The content of the book is based on research work, which Kerner has performed ... . The comprehensive bibliography ... is impressive whereby they are referred to almost solely as reference numbers in the text. ... Kerner's book serves as an important basis for freeway traffic science that can be valuable for traffic scientists and engineers in solving many tasks in traffic engineering." (Hartmut Keller, tec-Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 46 (2), 2005)

"Boris Kerner presents in his book an in-depth and comprehensive presentation of his three-phase theory of freeway traffic flow. ... It might well mark a milestone in the long-lasting discussion on modeling of freeway traffic flow. ... The book is didactically very well written, it guides the reader through the material by providing figurative descriptions whenever possible before diving into mathematics. Every chapter starts and ends with summaries ... ." (Peter Vortisch, IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, June, 2006)

Introductionp. 1
Historical Overview and Three-Phase Traffic Theory
Spatiotemporal Pattern Formation in Freeway Trafficp. 13
Introductionp. 13
Traffic and Synergeticsp. 14
Free and Congested Trafficp. 15
Local Measurements of Traffic Variablesp. 15
Examples of Freeway Infrastructures and Detector Arrangementsp. 17
Free Traffic Flowp. 18
Congested Trafficp. 21
Empirical Fundamental Diagramp. 22
Complex Local Dynamics of Congested Trafficp. 24
Main Empirical Features of Spatiotemporal Congested Patternsp. 27
Three Traffic Phasesp. 27
Characteristic Parameters of Wide Moving Jamsp. 28
Spontaneous Breakdown Phenomenon (Spontaneous F → S Transition)p. 32
Induced Breakdown Phenomenonp. 34
Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 35
Catch Effectp. 37
Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flow: General Patternp. 41
Expanded Congested Patternsp. 46
Foreign Wide Moving Jamsp. 51
Reproducible and Predictable Congested Patternsp. 53
Methodology for Empirical Congested Pattern Studyp. 57
Conclusions. Fundamental Empirical Features of Spatiotemporal Congested Patternsp. 58
Overview of Freeway Traffic Theories and Models: Fundamental Diagram Approachp. 63
Introduction: Hypothesis About Theoretical Fundamental Diagramp. 63
Achievements of Fundamental Diagram Approach to Traffic Flow Modeling and Theoryp. 64
Conservation of Vehicle Number on Road and Front Velocityp. 66
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model and Shock Wave Theoryp. 67
Collective Flow Concept and Probability of Passingp. 68
Scenarios for Moving Jam Emergencep. 69
Wide Moving Jam Characteristicsp. 69
Flow Rate in Wide Moving Jam Outflow. The Line Jp. 71
Metastable States of Free Flow with Respect to Moving Jam Emergencep. 73
Drawbacks of Fundamental Diagram Approach in Describing of Spatiotemporal Congested Freeway Patternsp. 78
Shock Wave Theoryp. 78
Models and Theories of Moving Jam Emergence in Free Flowp. 80
Models and Theories with Variety of Vehicle and Driver Characteristicsp. 83
Application of Classical Queuing Theories to Freeway Congested Traffic Patternsp. 84
Conclusionsp. 85
Basis of Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 87
Introduction and Remarks on Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 87
Definition of Traffic Phases in Congested Traffic Based on Empirical Datap. 88
Objective Criteria for Traffic Phases in Congested Trafficp. 88
Explanation of Terms """"Synchronized Flow"""" and """"Wide Moving Jam""""p. 90
Mean Vehicle Trajectoriesp. 91
Flow Rate in Synchronized Flowp. 91
Empirical Line Jp. 93
Propagation of Two Wide Moving Jamsp. 94
Fundamental Hypothesis of Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 95
Three-Phase Traffic Theory as Driver Behavioral Theoryp. 98
Synchronization Distance and Speed Adaptation Effect in Synchronized Flowp. 100
Random Transformations (""""Wandering"""") Within Synchronized Flow Statesp. 100
Dynamic Synchronized Flow Statesp. 101
Empirical Basis of Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 102
Conclusionsp. 103
Breakdown Phenomenon (F → S Transition) in Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Breakdown Phenomenon on Homogeneous Roadp. 106
Speed Breakdown at Limit Point of Free Flowp. 106
Critical Local Perturbation for Speed Breakdownp. 108
Probability for Breakdown Phenomenonp. 110
Threshold Flow Rate and Density, Metastability, and Nucleation Effectsp. 111
Z-Shaped Speed-Density and Passing Probability Characteristicsp. 114
Physics of Breakdown Phenomenon: Competition Between Over-Acceleration and Speed Adaptationp. 119
Physics of Threshold Point in Free Flowp. 120
Moving Synchronized Flow Patternp. 122
Breakdown Phenomenon at Freeway Bottlenecksp. 123
Deterministic Local Perturbationp. 123
Deterministic F→S Transitionp. 128
Pat Bottleneckp. 133
Influence of Random Perturbationsp. 133
Z-Characteristic for Speed Breakdown at Bottleneckp. 136
Physics of Speed Breakdown at Bottleneckp. 139
Time Delay of Speed Breakdownp. 140
Conclusionsp. 142
Moving Jam Emergence in Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 145
Introductionp. 145
Wide Moving Jam Emergence in Free Flowp. 147
Wide Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flowp. 150
Hypothesis for Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flowp. 150
Features of Metastable Synchronized Flow Statesp. 155
Stable High Density Synchronized Flow Statesp. 156
Double Z-Shaped Traffic Flow Characteristicsp. 158
Z-Characteristic for S→J Transitionp. 158
Cascade of Two Phase Transitions (F→S→J Transitions)p. 161
Wide Moving Jam Emergence Within Initial Moving Synchronized Flow Patternp. 167
Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flow at Bottlenecksp. 169
Why Moving Jams Do not Emerge in Free Flow at Bottlenecksp. 169
Z-Characteristic for S→J Transition at Bottlenecksp. 171
Physics of Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flowp. 172
Double Z-Characteristic and F→S→J Transitions at Bottlenecksp. 176
Conclusionsp. 178
Congested Patterns at Freeway Bottlenecks in Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 179
Introductionp. 179
Two Main Types of Spatiotemporal Congested Patternsp. 179
Simplified Diagram of Congested Patterns at Isolated Bottlenecksp. 180
Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 183
Influence of Fluctuations on Limit Point for Free Flow at Bottlenecksp. 183
Moving Synchronized Flow Pattern Emergence at Bottlenecksp. 185
Pinning of Downstream Front of Synchronized Flow at Bottlenecksp. 189
Transformation Between Widening and Localized Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 192
General Patternsp. 194
Spatiotemporal Structure of General Patternsp. 194
Dissolving General Pattern and Pattern Transformationp. 198
Region of Wide Moving Jamsp. 200
Narrow Moving Jam Emergence in Pinch Regionp. 204
Moving Jam Suppression Effectp. 209
Width of Pinch Regionp. 210
Wide Moving Jam Propagation Through Bottlenecksp. 211
Conclusionsp. 213
Freeway Capacity in Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 217
Introductionp. 217
Homogeneous Roadp. 217
Freeway Capacity in Free Flow at Bottlenecksp. 218
Definition of Freeway Capacityp. 218
Probability for Speed Breakdown at Bottlenecksp. 220
Threshold Boundary for Speed Breakdownp. 223
Features of Freeway Capacity at Bottlenecksp. 226
Z-Characteristic and Probability for Speed Breakdownp. 228
Congested Pattern Capacity at Bottlenecksp. 232
Main Behavioral Assumptions of Three Phase Traffic Theoryp. 234
Conclusionsp. 237
Empirical Spatiotemporal Congested Traffic Patterns
Empirical Congested Patterns at Isolated Bottlenecksp. 241
Introductionp. 241
Effectual Bottlenecks and Effective Locations of Bottlenecksp. 242
Effectual Bottlenecks on Freeway A5-Southp. 244
Effectual Bottlenecks on Freeway A5-Northp. 247
Isolated Effectual Bottleneckp. 247
Empirical Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 250
Widening Synchronized Flow Patternp. 250
Localized Synchronized Flow Patternp. 255
Moving Synchronized Flow Patternp. 256
Empirical General Patternsp. 259
Empirical General Pattern of Type (1)p. 259
Empirical General Pattern of Type (2)p. 262
Dependence of Effective Location of Bottleneck on Timep. 264
Conclusionsp. 268
Empirical Breakdown Phenomenon: Phase Transition from Free Flow to Synchronized Flowp. 269
Introductionp. 269
Spontaneous Breakdown Phenomenon (Spontaneous F→S Transition) at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 270
Probability for F→S Transitionp. 274
Empirical and Theoretical Definitions of Freeway Capacities at Bottlenecksp. 275
Pre-Discharge Flow Ratep. 278
Induced Speed Breakdown at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 281
F→S Transition Induced by Wide Moving Jam Propagation Through Effectual Bottleneckp. 282
Induced Speed Breakdown at Bottlenecks Caused by Synchronized Flow Propagationp. 282
Breakdown Phenomenon at Off-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 285
Breakdown Phenomenon Away from Bottlenecksp. 289
Some Empirical Features of Synchronized Flowp. 294
Complex Behavior in Flow-Density Planep. 294
Three Types of Synchronized Flowp. 296
Overlapping States of Free Flow and Synchronized Flow in Densityp. 299
Analysis of Individual Vehicle Speedsp. 302
Conclusionsp. 302
Empirical Features of Wide Moving Jam Propagationp. 305
Introductionp. 305
Characteristic Parameters of Wide Moving Jamsp. 305
Empirical Determination of Line Jp. 306
Dependence of Characteristic Jam Parameters on Traffic Conditionsp. 310
Propagation of Wide Moving Jams Through Synchronized Flowp. 311
Moving Blanks Within Wide Moving Jamsp. 314
Features of Foreign Wide Moving Jamsp. 316
Conclusionsp. 318
Empirical Features of Moving Jam Emergencep. 321
Introductionp. 321
Pinch Effect in Synchronized Flowp. 321
Narrow Moving Jam Emergencep. 323
Wide Moving Jam Emergence (S→J Transition)p. 328
Correlation of Characteristics for Pinch Region and Wide Moving Jamsp. 332
Frequency of Narrow Moving Jam Emergencep. 332
Saturation and Dynamic Features of Pinch Effectp. 334
Spatial Dependence of Speed Correlation Functionp. 335
Effect of Wide Moving Jam Emergence in Pinch Region of General Patternp. 337
Strong and Weak Congestionp. 337
Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flow Away from Bottlenecksp. 340
Pattern Formation at Off-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 343
Induced F→J Transitionp. 344
Conclusionsp. 348
Empirical Pattern Evolution and Transformation at Isolated Bottlenecksp. 349
Introductionp. 349
Evolution of General Patterns at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 350
Transformation of General Pattern into Synchronized Flow Patternp. 350
Alternation of Free Flow and Synchronized Flow in Congested Patternsp. 350
Hysteresis Effects Due to Pattern Formation and Dissolutionp. 352
Transformations of Congested Patterns Under Weak Congestionp. 354
Discharge Flow Rate and Capacity Dropp. 357
Conclusionsp. 363
Empirical Complex Pattern Formation Caused by Peculiarities of Freeway Infrastructurep. 365
Introductionp. 365
Expanded Congested Patternp. 366
Common Featuresp. 366
Example of Expanded Congested Patternp. 367
Dissolution of Moving Jams at Bottlenecksp. 369
Dynamics of Wide Moving Jam Outflowp. 369
Localized Synchronized Flow Patterns Resulting from Moving Jam Dissolutionp. 371
Conclusionsp. 372
Dependence of Empirical Fundamental Diagram on Congested Pattern Featuresp. 373
Introductionp. 373
Empirical Fundamental Diagram and Steady State Model Solutionsp. 373
Two Branches of Empirical Fundamental Diagramp. 374
Line J and Wide Moving Jam Outflowp. 375
Empirical Fundamental Diagram and Line Jp. 378
Asymptotic Behavior of Empirical Fundamental Diagramsp. 378
Influence of Different Vehicle Characteristics on Fundamental Diagramsp. 383
Dependence of Empirical Fundamental Diagram on Congested Pattern Typep. 385
Explanation of Reversed-, Inverted-V, and Inverted-U Empirical Fundamental Diagramsp. 392
Conclusionsp. 394
Microscopic Three-Phase Traffic Theory
Microscopic Traffic Flow Models for Spatiotemporal Congested Patternsp. 399
Introductionp. 399
Cellular Automata Approach to Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 401
General Rules of Vehicle Motionp. 401
Synchronization Distancep. 402
Steady Statesp. 403
Fluctuations of Acceleration and Deceleration in Cellular Automata Modelsp. 405
Boundary Conditions and Model of On-Rampp. 407
Summary of Model Equations and Parametersp. 408
Continuum in Space Model Approach to Three-Phase Traffic Theoryp. 408
Vehicle Motion Rulesp. 408
Speed Adaptation Effect Within Synchronization Distancep. 409
Motion State Model for Random Acceleration and Decelerationp. 411
Safe Speedp. 413
2D Region of Steady Statesp. 414
Physics of Driver Time Delaysp. 415
Over-Acceleration and Over-Deceleration Effectsp. 419
Lane Changing Rulesp. 420
Boundary Conditions and Models of Bottlenecksp. 421
Summary of Model Equations and Parametersp. 425
Conclusionsp. 431
Microscopic Theory of Phase Transitions in Freeway Trafficp. 433
Introductionp. 433
Microscopic Theory of Breakdown Phenomenon (F→S Transition)p. 434
Homogeneous Roadp. 434
Breakdown Phenomenon at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 438
Moving Jam Emergence and Double Z-Shaped Characteristics of Traffic Flowp. 442
F→J Transition on Homogeneous Roadp. 442
S→J Transition on Homogeneous Roadp. 443
Moving Jam Emergence in Synchronized Flow Upstream of Bottlenecksp. 445
Conclusionsp. 448
Congested Patterns at Isolated Bottlenecksp. 449
Introductionp. 449
Diagram of Congested Patterns at Isolated On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 450
Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 450
Single Vehicle Characteristics in Synchronized Flowp. 454
Maximum Freeway Capacities and Limit Point in Diagramp. 458
Pinch Effect in General Patternsp. 458
Peculiarities of General Patternsp. 462
Weak and Strong Congestion in General Patternsp. 464
Criteria for Strong and Weak Congestionp. 464
Strong Congestion Featuresp. 467
Evolution of Congested Patterns at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 469
Hysteresis and Nucleation Effects by Pattern Formation at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 471
Threshold Boundary for Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 471
Threshold Boundary for General Patternsp. 475
Overlap of Different Metastable Regions and Multiple Pattern Excitationp. 476
Strong Congestion at Merge Bottlenecksp. 477
Comparison of General Patterns at Merge Bottleneck and at On-Ramp Bottleneckp. 477
Diagram of Congested Patternsp. 478
Weak Congestion at Off-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 480
Diagram of Congested Patternsp. 480
Comparison of Pattern Features at Various Bottlenecksp. 480
Congested Pattern Capacity at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 483
Transformations of Congested Patterns at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 483
Temporal Evolution of Discharge Flow Ratep. 486
Dependence of Congested Pattern Capacity on On-Ramp Inflowp. 490
Conclusionsp. 492
Complex Congested Pattern Interaction and Transformationp. 495
Introductionp. 495
Catch Effect and Induced Congested Pattern Formationp. 496
Induced Pattern Emergencep. 496
Complex Congested Patterns and Pattern Interactionp. 498
Foreign Wide Moving Jamsp. 498
Expanded Congested Patternsp. 501
Intensification of Downstream Congestion Due to Upstream Congestionp. 504
Conclusionsp. 507
Spatiotemporal Patterns in Heterogeneous Traffic Flowp. 509
Introductionp. 509
Microscopic Two-Lane Model for Heterogeneous Traffic Flow with Various Driver Behavioral Characteristics and Vehicle Parametersp. 510
Single-Lane Modelp. 510
Two-Lane Modelp. 512
Boundary, Initial Conditions, and Model of Bottleneckp. 514
Simulation Parametersp. 515
Patterns in Heterogeneous Traffic Flow with Different Driver Behavioral Characteristicsp. 515
Vehicle Separation Effect in Free Flowp. 515
Onset of Congestion in Free Flow on Homogeneous Roadp. 516
Lane Asymmetric Emergence of Moving Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 519
Congested Patterns at On-Ramp Bottlenecksp. 519
Wide Moving Jam Propagationp. 525
Patterns in Heterogeneous Traffic Flow with Different Vehicle Parametersp. 528
Peculiarity of Wide Moving Jam Propagationp. 530
Partial Destroying of Speed Synchronizationp. 533
Extension of Free Flow Recovering and Vehicle Separationp. 533
Weak Heterogeneous Flowp. 535
Spontaneous Onset of Congestion Away from Bottlenecksp. 535
Lane Asymmetric Free Flow Distributionsp. 537
Characteristics of Congested Pattern Propagation in Heterogeneous Traffic Flowp. 538
Velocity of Downstream Jam Frontp. 538
Flow Rate in Jam Outflowp. 540
Velocity of Downstream Front of Moving Synchronized Flow Patternsp. 541
Conclusionsp. 542
Engineering Applications
ASDA and FOTO Models of Spatiotemporal Pattern Dynamics based on Local Traffic Flow Measurementsp. 547
Introductionp. 547
Identification of Traffic Phasesp. 548
Determination of Traffic Phases with FOTO Modelp. 550
Fuzzy Rules for FOTO Modelp. 551
Tracking Moving Jams with ASDA: Simplified Discussionp. 554
Tracking Synchronized Flow with FOTO Modelp. 557
ASDA-Like Approach to Tracking Synchronized Flowp. 559
Cumulative Flow Rate Approach to Tracking Synchronized Flowp. 560
Conclusionsp. 561
Spatiotemporal Pattern Recognition, Tracking, and Predictionp. 563
Introductionp. 563
FOTO and ASDA Application for Congested Pattern Recognition and Trackingp. 563
Validation of FOTO and ASDA Models at Traffic Control Center of German Federal State of Hessenp. 563
Application of FOTO and ASDA Models on Other Freeways in Germany and USAp. 565
Spatiotemporal Pattern Predictionp. 568
Historical Time Seriesp. 568
Database of Reproducible and Predictable Spatiotemporal Pattern Featuresp. 575
Vehicle Onboard Autonomous Spatiotemporal Congested Pattern Predictionp. 580
Traffic Analysis and Prediction in Urban Areasp. 582
Model for Traffic Prediction in City Networksp. 582
Conclusionsp. 589
Control of Spatiotemporal Congested Patternsp. 591
Introductionp. 591
Scenarios for Traffic Management and Controlp. 592
Spatiotemporal Pattern Control Through Ramp Meteringp. 593
Free Flow Control Approachp. 595
Congested Pattern Control Approachp. 606
Comparison of Free Flow and Congested Pattern Control Approachesp. 610
Comparison of Different Control Rules in Congested Pattern Control Approachp. 614
Dissolution of Congested Patternsp. 617
Prevention of Induced Congestionp. 620
Influence of Automatic Cruise Control on Congested Patternsp. 624
Model of Automatic Cruise Controlp. 624
Automatic Cruise Control with Quick Dynamic Adaptationp. 626
Automatic Cruise Control with Slow Dynamic Adaptationp. 628
Conclusionsp. 629
Conclusionp. 631
Terms and Definitionsp. 633
Traffic States, Parameters, and Variablesp. 633
Traffic Phasesp. 633
Phase Transitionsp. 634
Bottleneck Characteristicsp. 635
Congested Patterns at Bottlenecksp. 636
Local Perturbationsp. 637
Critical and Threshold Traffic Variablesp. 637
Some Features of Phase Transitions and Traffic State Stabilityp. 638
ASDA and FOTO Models for Practical Applicationsp. 641
ASDA Model for Several Road Detectorsp. 641
Extensions of ASDA for On-Ramps, Off-Ramps, and Changing of Number of Freeway Lanes Upstream of Moving Jamp. 643
Extensions of ASDA for On-Ramps, Off-Ramps, and Changing of Number of Freeway Lanes Downstream of Moving Jamp. 645
FOTO Model for Several Road Detectorsp. 646
Extended Rules for FOTO Modelp. 646
Statistical Evaluation of Different Reduced Detector Configurationsp. 651
Referencesp. 655
Indexp. 679
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540207160
ISBN-10: 3540207163
Series: Understanding Complex Systems
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 682
Published: 19th November 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 2.56