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The Parameter of Aspect : STUDIES IN LINGUISTICS AND PHILOSOPHY - Carlota S. Smith

The Parameter of Aspect

STUDIES IN LINGUISTICS AND PHILOSOPHY

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Published: 31st August 1997
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The Parameter of Aspect presents a unified theory of aspect within Universal Grammar. It provides an unusual combination of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic approaches to a single domain, and gives detailed linguistic analyses of five languages with very different aspectual systems: English, French, Mandarin Chinese, Navajo and Russian.
Extensive discussion of the linguistic evidence is complemented by a formal semantic treatment in the framework of Discourse Representation Theory, with an explicit procedure for computing aspectual meaning from syntactic surface structure.
Among the theoretical innovations is a principled account of the interaction between viewpoint (perfective, imperfective) and situation type (state, event); a level of pragmatic analysis at which contrastive and inferred meanings are stated; a default analysis of sentences that are neither perfective nor imperfective in viewpoint. This second edition has been completely revised to include further development of the two-component theory, including new treatments of boundedness, dynamism and a general account of aspectual shifts. Syntactic and semantic tests are given for determining aspectual categories in all five languages.

"The book is well organized and easy to follow. In conclusion this work is an important contribution to the study of aspect. The first edition of the book became one of the basic works on aspect, cited by many and used as a textbook by some. I believe this edition will gain the same respect." (Pragmatics & Cognition, 8:2 (2000)

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. xiii
p. xix
The Approachp. 1
The general theoryp. 1
The two components in sentencesp. 2
Aspectual systems in languagep. 4
Aspectual choicep. 6
The structure of the aspectual componentsp. 8
The logic of markednessp. 8
Markedness, categorization, and aspectual choicep. 10
Situation type categories and prototype theoryp. 11
The parameter of aspect and Universal Grammarp. 13
Situation Aspectp. 17
Basic-level and derived-level situation typesp. 17
Temporal features of the situation typesp. 19
The causal chainp. 21
The situation typesp. 22
Activitiesp. 23
Accomplishmentsp. 26
Semelfactivesp. 29
Achievementsp. 30
Stativesp. 32
The general categories of event and statep. 35
The Linguistic Realization of the Situation Typesp. 39
Syntactic and semantic propertiesp. 39
Linguistic properties of the temporal featuresp. 39
Linguistic characterization of the situation typesp. 44
Derived situation typesp. 48
Super-lexical morphemes: lexical focusp. 48
Multiple-event Activitiesp. 50
Habitual Stativesp. 50
Marked focusp. 51
A principle for interpreted situation type shiftsp. 53
Rules for composing verb constellationsp. 54
Basic-level verb constellationsp. 54
Derived-level verb constellationsp. 55
Verb constellations of interestp. 56
Perception verbs, Personal property predicatesp. 56
Vague verb constellationsp. 58
Viewpoint Aspectp. 61
Semantic information and aspectual viewpointsp. 62
Families of viewpointsp. 65
Perfective viewpointsp. 66
Imperfective viewpointsp. 73
Neutral viewpointsp. 77
The independence of viewpoint and situation typep. 81
Viewpoint spanp. 81
Visible information and the imperfective paradoxp. 83
The relation between statives and imperfectivesp. 84
Viewpoints and conventions of usep. 86
Pragmatic conventions and closed systemsp. 86
Augmented interpretationsp. 87
Conventions of use for aspectual viewpointsp. 88
Narrative conventions and the viewpointsp. 92
Temporal Locationp. 97
Time and temporal locationp. 97
Temporal information in sentencesp. 99
The coordinates of temporal locationp. 99
Temporal reference and temporal locationp. 101
Tenses and the perfectp. 106
Tensep. 106
The perfectp. 106
Sentences about the Presentp. 110
Adverbialsp. 112
The interpretation of temporal expressionsp. 117
The Formal Analysis of Temporal Meaningp. 123
Formalizing aspectual conceptsp. 123
Situation aspectp. 124
Viewpoint aspectp. 126
Perfective viewpointsp. 128
Imperfective viewpointsp. 130
From form to meaning: Determining the aspectual meaning of sentencesp. 131
Computing scopal structurep. 132
Compositional rules for situation typep. 133
Determining the temporal location meaning of sentencesp. 137
Aspectual Meaning in Discourse Representation Theoryp. 141
Meaning and language understandingp. 141
Discourse Representation Theoryp. 144
Discourse Representation Structuresp. 145
Aspectual meaning in Discourse Representation Structurep. 145
Temporal location in Discourse Representation Structuresp. 148
Other viewpoints in Discourse Representation Structuresp. 150
Relating the Discourse Representation Structure to a modelp. 152
Aspectual indeterminacy and inferencep. 154
Additional DRSsp. 160
p. 165
Introduction to Part IIp. 167
The Aspectual System of Englishp. 169
Introductory characterizationp. 169
Viewpoint aspectp. 169
The perfective viewpointp. 170
The imperfective viewpointp. 171
Conventions of usep. 175
Situation typep. 176
Temporal properties in sentences of Englishp. 176
Activitiesp. 177
Accomplishmentsp. 178
Semelfactivesp. 180
Achievementsp. 181
Stativesp. 182
Temporal location and aspectp. 184
Present tense sentencesp. 185
The Perfect constructionp. 186
The Futuratep. 189
The Aspectual System of Frenchp. 193
Introductory characterizationp. 193
Viewpoint aspectp. 193
The perfective viewpointp. 194
The imperfective viewpointsp. 197
The Neutral viewpointp. 201
Temporal locationp. 204
The Past tensesp. 204
The Present tensesp. 208
The Future tensesp. 210
Conventions of usep. 211
Situation Aspectp. 214
Temporal properties in Frenchp. 214
Activitiesp. 215
Accomplishmentsp. 218
Semelfactivesp. 220
Achievementsp. 220
Stativesp. 222
The Aspectual System of Russianp. 227
Introductory characterizationp. 227
Morphological preliminariesp. 228
Viewpoint aspectp. 229
The perfective viewpointp. 230
The imperfective viewpointp. 231
Conventions of usep. 234
Situation aspectp. 241
Grammatical features of Russianp. 241
Temporal properties in Russianp. 242
Activitiesp. 243
Accomplishmentsp. 245
Semelfactivesp. 246
Achievementsp. 247
Stativesp. 248
Temporal locationp. 250
Tensep. 250
Adverbialsp. 251
Infinitivesp. 252
Negationp. 256
Test for the viewpoint aspect of a verb formp. 258
The Aspectual System of Mandarin Chinesep. 263
Introductory characterizationp. 263
Viewpoint aspectp. 263
The perfective viewpointsp. 263
The imperfective viewpointsp. 271
The neutral viewpointp. 277
Conventions of usep. 279
Situation aspectp. 281
Grammatical features of Mandarinp. 281
Temporal properties in Mandarinp. 284
Activitiesp. 285
Accomplishmentsp. 287
Semelfactivesp. 290
Achievementsp. 291
Stativesp. 292
Verb constellations of special interestp. 294
The Aspectual System of Navajop. 297
Introductory characterizationp. 297
The Navajo Aspectual Systemp. 297
Preliminaries: The Navajo verbp. 298
Viewpoint aspectp. 300
The perfective viewpointp. 301
The imperfective viewpointp. 302
The progressive viewpointp. 303
The neutral viewpointp. 304
Conventions of usep. 306
Situation aspectp. 309
The Navajo sentencep. 309
Temporal properties in Navajop. 312
Durative eventsp. 313
Instantaneous eventsp. 317
Stativesp. 317
Lexical and morphological factorsp. 319
Super-lexical morphemesp. 319
Verb lexeme categoriesp. 321
Time expressions in Navajop. 323
Temporal location: tense and adverbialsp. 323
Temporal durationp. 324
Examples of VLC category membersp. 327
Referencesp. 331
General Indexp. 343
Name Indexp. 347
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792346579
ISBN-10: 0792346572
Series: STUDIES IN LINGUISTICS AND PHILOSOPHY
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 353
Published: 31st August 1997
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.15  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.7
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised