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The Mind within the Net : Models of Learning, Thinking, and Acting - Manfred Spitzer

The Mind within the Net

Models of Learning, Thinking, and Acting

Paperback Published: 28th February 2000
ISBN: 9780262692366
Number Of Pages: 376
For Ages: 18+ years old

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Neurophysiology has told us a lot about how neurons work; neural network theory is about how neurons work "together" to process information. In this highly readable book, Manfred Spitzer provides a basic, nonmathematical introduction to neural networks and their clinical applications. Part I explains the fundamental theory of neural networks and how neural network models work. Part II covers the principles of network functioning and how computer simulations of neural networks have profound consequences for our understanding of how the brain works. Part III covers applications of network models (e.g., to knowledge representation, language, and mental disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease) that shed new light on normal and abnormal states of mind. Finally, Spitzer concludes with his thoughts on the ramifications of neural networks for the understanding of neuropsychology and human nature.

Seductive on-screen views of brain activity open up a closed realm by rendering the mind visible. A new enlightenment beckons. A new stupidity, too, a new confusion of the moral and mechanical, if we don't listen carefully to sane and discriminating voices like Spitzer's. * Daily Telegraph * Spitzer... has written a highly readable introduction to 'traditional' neural-net models.... * Nature *

Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
History
Neural Networks In Intensive-Care Units
Enlightenment!
Brains Versus Computers
Speed
Reliability
Architecture
Recap
Basics
Neuronal Teamwork
Neurons as Information-Processing Units
A Simple Network for Pattern Recognition
Shared Labor by Parallel Processing
Language Acquisition by Children and Networks
Computer Simulations of Higher Cognitive Functions
DECtalk versus NETtalk
Beethoven, Karajan, Sony, and the Human Genome
Recap
Learning
Association and Hebbian Learning
Learning Synapses
Excursus: Glutamate and the 1992 Molecule of the Year
Supervised Learning
Age and the Learning Constant
Reality as the Basic Set and Experience as a Part Subset
The Accuracy Of A Prediction Increases With The Square Root Of The Number Of Observations
Why Children Play
Practice, Don't Preach
Computer Models And Biological Neurons
Shape From Shading
Recap
Vectors in the Head
Vectors
Codes
Symbols versus Vectors
Colors as Vectors
Codes as Optimization Strategies
Vector Populations and the Population Vector
Observing Neurons During Learning
Recap
Principles
Maps in the Cortex
Anatomy of the Cortex
Isocortex--The General Purpose Machine
Columns of Information Processing
Self-Organizing Feature Maps
Example: A Simulated Network for Letter Recognition
Similarity and Frequency
Receptive Fields
Cortical Topography
Biological Example: The Auditory Cortex of the Bat
Networks of Maps: Modularity
Recap
Hidden Layers The Exclusive-Or
Abstraction and Type Formation
Learning by the Feedback of Errors
Hidden Layers in the Brain
Cortico-Cortical Connections
Analysis and Synthesis
Ping-Pong Style Information Processing
Autism
Brains as Engines for the Estimation of Functions
Recap
Neuroplasticity
Artificial Ears
Hearing, Too, Depends on Context
Rewiring Maps
Animal Studies on Neuroplasticity
Importance of the Input
Selective Attention
The Higher the Level, the More Adaptive the Area
Phantoms and Amputated Networks
Subjective Experience
Cortical-Phantom Genesis
Peripheral Phantom Genesis
Simulating Phantoms by Amputating Networks
Noise
Noise and Neuroplasticity
Turning a Conundrum into a Parsimonious Theory
The Cortex Plays the First Violin
Therapeutic Application: Plastic Understanding of Spoken Language
Neuroplasticity and Thought
Recap
Feedback
Connectivity Across the Board: Hopfield Networks
Attractors
Auditory Hallucinations
Elman Networks
Working Memory
Development of the Frontal Lobes
Interaction of Brain Development and Learning
Pidgin and Creole Languages
Recap
Applications
Representing Knowledge
Static Rules versus Dynamic Processes
Piaget and Stages of Development
Memory
Living without the Hippocampus
Memory in the Network
Single Events versus Generality
Catastrophic Interference
Race Against Decay
The Hippocampus as the Trainer of the Cortex
A Neural Network Model of Alzheimer's Disease
Recap
Semantic Networks
Understanding and Speaking
Associations: What Comes to Mind, and Why
Rhymes, Fatigue, and Attention
Associative Networks
Self-Organizing Semantic Networks
Language Is Used
Semantic Maps in the Head
Missing Vegetables Only
Category-Specific Activation in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Measuring Associations within Networks
Recap
Postscript on Aschaffenburg and Jung or, Whether Rhyming Is Priming Depends upon Timing
The Disordered Mind
The Birth of Schizophrenia
Madness and Craziness
Dysfunctional Lexical Access
Indirect Associations
What Pauses during Speech Reveal about Thoughts
Remote Ideas
Dopamine, Neuromodulation, Signal, and Noise
Neuromodulation
Noise: Not a Bug, but a Feature
Formal Thought Disorder as the Result of Decreased Signal-to-Noise
Intermediate Result
Meaning Electrified: EEG and Semantics
Associative and Working Memory
Metaphors and Concretism
Delusions
Acute Delusions and Neuromodulation
Chronic Delusions and Neuroplasticity
Recap
Thoughts and Impressions
Back to the Basics: What Are Models?
Principles
Realistic and
Abstract Models
Models in Medicine
Computational Models of Emotions?
The Depression Spiral
Temperament, Character, and Personality
What Is Good for Children
Stability and Teddy Bear
Psychotherapy
User's Manual for Your Brain
Glossary
References
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262692366
ISBN-10: 0262692368
Series: The Mind within the Net
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 376
Published: 28th February 2000
Publisher: MIT Press Ltd
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.3
Weight (kg): 0.57