Having spent many years in the eastern reaches of the British Empire, Sir William Muir was well-suited to describe the life of Eastern empires. In this study of the rulers of Egypt during the Middle Ages, Muir clarifies the facts concerning the peoples who were so often feared by the Medieval Christian establishment. Beginning with the Crusades, Muir then shifts his focus to the realm of Egypt and the Mamelukes, the famed slave-soldiers of Egypt. This military caste of Muslim converts in the service of the Caliphs was able to assert its strength to the point of ruling Egypt. This classic, in-depth study of the rule of the Mamelukes from 1260 to 1517 treats the dynasties ruler-by-ruler. The Bahrite Dynasty is traced from Beibars to Nasir; the three reigns of the latter and those of his descendents are clearly the most prominent. The Circassian Dynasty encompasses from Berkuk al Zahir through Sultan Selim and the Caliph Mutawakkil. From his nineteenth-century perspective, Muir considers the race of the Mamelukes and examines how they fared under Ottoman rule. This study addresses an area often overlooked in Medieval studies, that has implications for the larger world of the Middle Ages.