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The Logic of Metaphor : Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds - Eric Steinhart

The Logic of Metaphor

Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds

Hardcover Published: 31st July 2001
ISBN: 9780792370048
Number Of Pages: 256

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1. Metaphors and Logic Metaphors are among the most vigorous offspring of the creative mind; but their vitality springs from the fact that they are logical organisms in the ecology of l- guage. I aim to use logical techniques to analyze the meanings of metaphors. My goal here is to show how contemporary formal semantics can be extended to handle metaphorical utterances. What distinguishes this work is that it focuses intensely on the logical aspects of metaphors. I stress the role of logic in the generation and int- pretation of metaphors. While I don't presuppose any formal training in logic, some familiarity with philosophical logic (the propositional calculus and the predicate c- culus) is helpful. Since my theory makes great use of the notion of structure, I refer to it as the structural theory of m etaphor (STM). STM is a semant ic theory of m etaphor : if STM is correct, then metaphors are cognitively meaningful and are n- trivially logically linked with truth. I aim to extend possible worlds semantics to handle metaphors. I'll argue that some sentences in natural languages like English have multiple meanings: "Juliet is the sun" has (at least) two meanings: the literal meaning "(Juliet is the sunkIT" and the metaphorical meaning "(Juliet is the sun)MET". Each meaning is a function from (possible) worlds to truth-values. I deny that these functions are identical; I deny that the metaphorical function is necessarily false or necessarily true.

Acknowledgementsp. vii
Introductionp. 1
Metaphors and Logicp. 1
Metaphor and Possible Worlds Semanticsp. 2
Analogical Counterpartsp. 5
Theory-Constitutive Metaphorsp. 8
Analyzing Metaphorsp. 12
Philosophical Application of the Computerp. 18
Sample Metaphorical Textsp. 22
Analogical Inferences to Existencep. 24
Languagep. 27
Introductionp. 27
Languagesp. 27
The Grammar of Metaphorp. 30
Propositionsp. 36
Propositions as Networksp. 41
Conclusionp. 45
Semanticsp. 50
Conceptual Structuresp. 59
Introductionp. 59
The Network of Conceptsp. 59
The Taxonomic Hierarchy of Typesp. 60
The Mereological Hierarchy of Typesp. 61
Taxonomic Hierarchy of Processesp. 62
Contrastive Structuresp. 63
Symmetries in Networksp. 65
Rules and Lexical Entailmentsp. 66
Conceptual Fieldsp. 67
Conclusionp. 70
Sample Descriptionsp. 74
Analogyp. 81
Introductionp. 81
Towards a Formal Theory of Analogyp. 82
The Stages of Analogical Inferencep. 84
Analogical Accessp. 84
Analog Retrieval by Constraint Satisfactionp. 85
The Access Phase in NETMETp. 89
Analogical Mappingp. 93
Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfactionp. 95
Difficulties with Proportional Analogyp. 99
Rules for Analogical Mappingp. 100
Conclusionp. 108
Analogical Transferencep. 115
Introductionp. 115
Analogical Transferencep. 116
Subsymbolic Analogical Transferencep. 118
An Extended Example of Analogical Transferencep. 119
Rules for Analogical Transferencep. 121
Analogical Transference and Inductionp. 126
Perfect Analogiesp. 130
Self-Mirroring Universesp. 131
Conclusionp. 134
Examples of Analogical Transferencep. 137
Metaphorical Communicationp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Rules for Generating Metaphorsp. 142
From Metaphors to Analogiesp. 147
Conclusionp. 158
Analogy and Truthp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Truth-Conditions for Analogiesp. 161
Logical Paraphrases for Metaphorsp. 164
Rules for Assigning Truth-Values to Metaphorsp. 167
Metaphorical Identity is Relative Indiscernibilityp. 174
Conclusionp. 178
Intensions for Metaphorsp. 180
Metaphor and Inferencep. 183
Introductionp. 183
Metaphor and Inferencep. 183
Metaphor Justificationp. 188
Metaphor Interpretationp. 196
Conclusionp. 207
Lexical Meaningsp. 209
Introductionp. 209
Definitions for Metaphorical Predicatesp. 209
Metaphors Based on Perfect Analogiesp. 213
Inference to the Best Definitionp. 216
Informative Truth-Conditionsp. 220
Metaphors Based on Imperfect Analogiesp. 223
Conclusionp. 225
Conclusionp. 227
Referencesp. 231
Indexp. 249
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792370048
ISBN-10: 079237004X
Series: Synthese Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 256
Published: 31st July 2001
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.19