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The Life Cycle of Copper, Its Co-Products and Byproducts : Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science - Professor Robert U. Ayres

The Life Cycle of Copper, Its Co-Products and Byproducts

Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science

Hardcover Published: 30th September 2003
ISBN: 9781402015526
Number Of Pages: 265

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Copper is one of the three most important metals in the world economy, and the only one of the three that is comparatively scarce in the earth's crust. Known reserves in the early-21st century will only last a few decades at projected rates of consumption. While some substitution possibilities exist for some of its applications, copper is uniquely valuable as a conductor of electricity in a world that is rapidly electrifying. This fact makes the copper life cycle an appropriate subject for holistic analysis. This work, which includes a quantitative demand forecasting model, is based on a study commissioned by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) for the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) fills that need. Among the conclusions of the study are the following. The medium-term prospects for copper producers and copper consuming industries include (1) more intensive exploration into more remote regions, (2) utilization of lower grade ores resulting in more mine wastes and associated waste disposal problems, (3) more intensive mining efficient ore reduction processes, (4) dramatic price increases when the current glut works itself out, (5) significant changes in the patterns of consumption (increasingly electrical applications), (6) sharp increases in the need for recovering and recycling old scrap copper in the future, (7) a significant buildup of copper and by-products (especially arsenic) either in use or in the human environment. Similar implications can be drawn for two other scarce and toxic metals - lead and zinc - often found in geological association with copper.

Forewordp. ix
Acknowledgementsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
The life cycle perspectivep. 1
Historical backgroundp. 6
Geology of copperp. 14
Geology of lead and zincp. 18
Copper: Sources and Supplyp. 21
Physical properties and chemistryp. 21
Copper productionp. 22
Process technologyp. 23
Miningp. 27
Beneficiationp. 30
Leachingp. 33
Cementation and solvent extraction (SX)p. 34
Roasting, and smeltingp. 35
Convertingp. 37
Electrowinningp. 38
Fire refining and electrolytic refiningp. 38
Future trends in primary processingp. 39
Exergy and exergy flowsp. 40
Sulfur recoveryp. 44
Production-related wastes and emissionsp. 46
Mining wastesp. 46
Beneficiation wastesp. 48
Leaching (acid) wastesp. 50
Smelting wastesp. 51
Wastes from finishing operationsp. 54
Recycling (secondary recovery) wastesp. 54
Toxic releasesp. 54
Global estimates of airborne emissionsp. 54
Optimal extraction/productionp. 56
Copper: Demand and Dispositionp. 59
Consumption patterns and trendsp. 59
Accumulation of copper stocks in the anthropospherep. 70
Dissipative uses and losses of copperp. 80
The future of demand for copperp. 83
Lead, Zinc and Other Byproduct Metalsp. 101
Contextp. 101
Physical properties and chemistry of lead and zincp. 101
Lead process technologyp. 103
Ore mining and beneficiationp. 103
Sinteringp. 105
Smeltingp. 105
Drossing and final refiningp. 106
Exergy and exergy flowsp. 106
Lead sources and usesp. 109
Zinc processingp. 112
Ore mining and beneficiationp. 112
Roasting and sinteringp. 112
Smelting and refiningp. 114
Exergy and exergy flowsp. 114
Recycling old zinc scrapp. 117
Zinc sources and usesp. 117
Lead and zinc wastes and emissionsp. 120
Other byproduct metalsp. 127
Antimonyp. 130
Arsenicp. 131
Bismuthp. 135
Cadmiump. 135
Germaniump. 140
Goldp. 141
Indiump. 142
Rheniump. 142
Seleniump. 143
Silverp. 143
Sulfurp. 143
Telluriump. 147
Thalliump. 147
The Future of Recyclingp. 149
Backgroundp. 149
Recovery and recycling of copper from old scrapp. 153
Recovery and recycling of electronic scrapp. 157
Copper as a contaminant of recycled steelp. 159
Copper recycling wastes and emissionsp. 161
Recovery and recycling of leadp. 162
Recovery and recycling of zincp. 164
Recovery and recycling of byproduct metalsp. 165
Antimonyp. 165
Arsenicp. 165
Cadmiump. 165
Germaniump. 166
Goldp. 166
Indiump. 166
Seleniump. 167
Silverp. 167
Telluriump. 167
Further comments on losses and potential recoverabilityp. 167
Conclusions and Questionsp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Copper availabilityp. 169
Copper demand: the continuing electrification of the global energy systemp. 171
Lead, zinc and byproduct metals availability and usesp. 173
Concentration, reduction and refining technologyp. 174
Sulfur recovery and acidification of the environmentp. 174
Copper, lead and zinc recyclingp. 175
Emissions and accumulation of copper and zinc in agricultural soils; probably a non-problemp. 177
Accumulation of arsenic, cadmium and other toxic metals in the terrestrial environment: A real problemp. 177
The threat of 'toxic time bombs'p. 180
The long-term prospectp. 180
Referencesp. 183
The Exergy Conceptp. 193
Definition and description of exergy calculationsp. 193
Exergy as a tool for resource and waste accountingp. 195
Composition of mixtures, including fuelsp. 197
The Behavior of Copper, Lead and Zinc in Soilp. 201
Metals in soilsp. 201
Aqueous phase speciationp. 203
Solid phase constituents and complex formationp. 204
Summaryp. 210
Global Copper Modelp. 211
Introductionp. 211
A model of the global copper systemp. 211
Calibration of the modelp. 219
Copper consumption scenariosp. 227
Copper system scenariosp. 232
Glossaryp. 253
Indexp. 257
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402015526
ISBN-10: 1402015526
Series: Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 265
Published: 30th September 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.59 x 16.76  x 1.7
Weight (kg): 0.64

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