Three important studies were initiated in the 1970s to investigate the relation- ship between climatic variations and agriculture: by the National Defense University (1980) on Crop Yields and Climate Change to the Year 2000, by the U.S. Department of Transportation (1975) on Impacts 0/ Climatic Change on the Biosphere and by the U.S. Department of Energy (1980) on Environmental and 0/ a Possible CO -Induced Climatic Change (the ClAP Societal Consequences 2 study). These were pioneering projects in a young field. Their emphasis was on measuring likely impacts of climatic variations rather than on evaluating possible responses, and they focused on first-order impacts (e.g., on crop yields) rather than on higher-order effects on society. A logical next step was to look at higher-order effects and potential responses, as part of a more integrated approach to impact assessment. This was undertaken by the World Climate Impact Program (WCIP), which is directed by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The WCIP is one of four aspects of the World Ciimate Program, which was initiated in 1979.
`It is an admirable book in its breadth and depth. It is authoritative, up-to-date, extensively referenced and illustrated. There are many tables of data ... Put it high on your list of recommendations for library purchase.'
E. Linacre, Australian Geographer, November 1989
`... this is a book which should be read by all planners and policy makers as well as agricultural scientists who are endeavouring to have a complete knowledge of their subject.'
W.J. Ridgman, Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 113, 1989
`In addition this volume contains a lot of data about climatic and other site factors influencing biomass production as well as about economic conditions in the different regions. Together with volume 2 this volume provides an important basis for ecologists as well as for economists for studying the interaction between climate and plant growth and biomass production in the different regions of the world.'
Agroforestry Systems, 10, 1990
I. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture: Introduction to the IIASA/UNEP Case Studies in Semi-Arid Regions.- List of Contributors.- Abstracts.- 1. The assessment of effects of climatic variations on agriculture: A summary of results from studies in semi-arid regions.- 2. The choice of first-order impact models for semi-arid regions.- 3. Climate and climatic variability in semi-arid regions at low altitudes.- II. The Effects of Climatic Variations on Agriculture in Central and Eastern Kenya.- List of Contributors.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction to the Kenya case study.- 2. Drought climatology and development of the climatic scenarios.- 3. The effects on agroclimatic zones and agricultural production.- 4. The effects on maize yields.- 5. The effects on livestock production.- 6. Smallholder vulnerability and response to drought.- 7. Implications for policy.- Acknowledgments.- References.- III. The Effects of Climatic Variations on Agriculture in Northeast Brazil.- List of Contributors.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction: Drought as a policy and planning issue in Northeast Brazil.- 2. The climatology of droughts and drought prediction.- 3. The effects on crop yields: A simulation approach.- 4. The effects on agricultural production and yields.- 5. Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- Abbreviations and Acronyms.- References.- IV. The Effects of Climatic Variations on Agriculture in the Central Sierra of Ecuador.- List of Contributors.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction: Vulnerability to climatic variations.- 2. Selection of the climatic scenarios.- 3. The vulnerability of indigenous farming systems to climatic variations.- 4. The effects of climatic variations and agricultural practices on barley yields.- 5. The effects of variations in mean temperatures and frost risk.- 6. The effects on zones of agroclimatic suitability for crops.- 7. The effects on Holdridge Life Zones.- 8. Conclusions and implications for policies of rural development.- References.- V. The Effects of Climatic Variations on Agriculture in Dry Tropical Regions of India.- List of Contributors.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Effects of monsoon variability on agriculture.- 3. Effects on agricultural productivity.- 4. Village-level farm adjustment to rainfall variability.- 5. Conclusions and implications.- Acknowledgments.- References.- VI. The Effects of Climatic Variations on Agriculture in the Semi-arid Zone of the European USSR.- List of Contributors.- Abstract.- A. The Stavropol Territory.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Background to the methods, models and scenarios.- 3. The effects on crop production and crop allocation.- 4. Conclusions and implications for agricultural planning and policy.- B. The Saratov Region.- 5. Introduction.- 6. The effects on spring wheat yields.- 7. Optimal strategies for allocating land to grain crops.- 8. Conclusions and recommendations.- References.- VII. The Effects of Climatic Variations on Agriculture in the Australian Wheatbelt.- List of Contributors.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction: Policy and planning issues for the Australian wheat industry.- 2. Climatic patterns and variability in the Australian wheatbelt.- 3. Socioeconomic impacts of climatic variability.- 4. Implications for policy makers and planners.- Acknowledgments.- References.