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The History of Violin Playing from its Origins to 1761 : and its Relationship to the Violin and Violin Music - David D. Boyden

The History of Violin Playing from its Origins to 1761

and its Relationship to the Violin and Violin Music

Paperback

Published: 22nd February 1990
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David Boyden's classic book, first published in 1965, was the first to deal comprehensively with the history of violin playing against the vast panorama of the violin's evolution and the music written for it. Its principal theme is the manner in which the violin was actually played in past centuries, dealing with such practical questions as bowing disciplines in their national and historical evolution, the performance of staccato, the use of vibrato, the meaning of numerous and esoteric performing directions, the notation and performance of double stops, the rules of scordatura playing, and the sound of the violin in early times. Remaining an invaluable source of reference for the performance of early music, this book is now available for the first time in paperback.

`Way back in 1965 Boyden's 'History' was a good buy at eight guineas and at today's values it is an outstanding bargain' Robert Lewin, Strad `IThis book is the authoritative work on the history of violin playing up to the middle of the 18th century. ... essential reading for classical violinists and violin teachers ... it is a tribute to the scholarship of David Boyden that, 25 ... it remains a respected and valuable addition to one's library.' ISM Music Journal

Prefacep. v
Acknowledgementsp. xi
List of Platesp. xxi
List of Figuresp. xxiv
The Formative Period, 1520-1600
General introductionp. 2
The Origin and Development of the Early Violin, 1520-50p. 6
The early violin. Dates and places of origin. Gaudenzio Ferrari's paintingsp. 7
Ancestors: rebec, Renaissance fiddle, lira da braccio. The role of the viols. Termsp. 8
Did the viola precede the violin?p. 15
The 'inventor' of the violinp. 17
Chronological review of the evidence. Treatises. Historical, political, and linguistic questions. Termsp. 21
The Advent of the True Violin and Its Development to 1600p. 31
The true violin described by Jambe de Fer. Detailed descriptionp. 31
The emergence of Cremona and Brescia as centres of violin making. Andrea Amati, Gasparo da Salo, and G. P. Maggini. Violins shown in paintingp. 34
Export of Italian violins to other countriesp. 38
Violin making outside Italy: France. Germany. Poland. Spain. Englandp. 39
Treatises. Terminologyp. 42
The violin bow in the sixteenth centuryp. 45
Violin Music in the Sixteenth Centuryp. 49
The musical functions of the violinp. 50
The dearth of written violin musicp. 51
The role of the violin in dancing and accompanying voicesp. 52
Instrumental forms. The canzonap. 53
Use of the violin in France. Le ballet comique de la reine (1581)p. 54
In England: records of the court, towns, and private householdsp. 57
In Italy: accounts of the Duke of Savoyp. 59
In Germany: an account of a ducal weddingp. 61
How the Violin Sounded and How It Was Played in the Sixteenth Centuryp. 65
Different methods of playing. The corresponding soundp. 65
How the violin was played in the sixteenth centuryp. 71
Holding the violin and bowp. 73
Tone, The bow stroke. Ganassi's information. Down-bow and up-bowp. 77
Pizzicatop. 84
Fingering. Positions. Shiftingp. 84
Improvisationp. 89
Multiple stopsp. 90
Expression, including vibrato and dynamicsp. 91
The Development of an Idiomatic Technique, 1600-1650
Introduction. Social, political, and artistic conditions. Their impact on the violinp. 98
The Development of the Violin and Bow in the Early Seventeenth Centuryp. 107
The progress of the violin. Maggini. The Amatis. Details of the violin and its fittingsp. 107
The bowp. 111
The violin family as a whole. Terminologyp. 115
Increasing usage of the violin. Its effect on rebec and violp. 119
The New Violin Idiom. Violin Music and Its uses in Different Countries, 1600-50p. 121
The implications of the term 'idiom'p. 121
The development of a new violin idiomp. 125
Violin music and its uses, 1600-50. The sonata and other formsp. 126
Contributions of various countries: Italy. Marinip. 134
Germanyp. 136
Francep. 136
Englandp. 138
Other countriesp. 143
The Technique and Sound of the Violin in the Early Seventeenth Centuryp. 145
The relation between technique, music, and instrument makingp. 145
The dance style and the sonata style of playing. National stylesp. 147
Holding the violin and bow. The French and Italian bow gripsp. 152
The technique of the left hand: fingering, positions, and shiftingp. 153
The technique of the right hand: bowing and bow strokesp. 156
The formation of a bowing discipline in Italy and elsewhere. The Rule of Down-Bow. Zannettip. 157
Individual bow strokes. Slurring. Francesco Rognonip. 163
Borrowing of technique. Multiple stopsp. 166
Special indications: Tremolo. Affettip. 170
Col legno. pizzicatop. 171
The sound of the violin in the early seventeenth centuryp. 172
General Matters Affecting the Violin to 1650p. 175
Ornamentsp. 175
The vibratop. 177
Dynamics and expressionp. 178
Rhythm and tempop. 180
Pitch. Intonation systemsp. 185
The National Schools of the Late Seventeenth Century. The Rise of Virtuosity
Introductionp. 192
The Development of the Violin and Bow, 1650-1700p. 194
The influence of Nicola Amati and Stainerp. 194
Antonio Stradivari (early works). The 'long' modelp. 197
Other makersp. 198
Details of the seventeenth-century violin. The Talbot manuscriptp. 199
Material and thickness of string. Pitch. Tension. Volume of soundp. 203
The bow. The 'Stradivari' bowp. 206
The Violin Music of the Late Seventeenth-centuryp. 212
Introduction: types of music and ideas of expressionp. 212
Contributions of different countries: Italyp. 216
Areas of activity. Composersp. 216
The Bologna School. G. B. Vitalip. 218
Corelli. Works and influencep. 220
Germanyp. 223
Biber. Waltherp. 223
Their music and techniquep. 224
The scordaturap. 226
Francep. 227
Lully's use of the violin in dances and the operap. 229
French violinists and the guild systemp. 229
Englandp. 229
The French influence of the Restoration of Charles II. Influx of German and Italian violinists, including Baltzar and Matteisp. 229
The fancy. John Jenkinsp. 233
Dances. The variation. The Division-Violinp. 234
Baltzar as a playerp. 235
Matteis as a player and composerp. 236
Purcell's trio sonatasp. 237
Other countriesp. 239
The Technique of the Violin, 1650-1700 (I): National Styles of Playing. The Treatises. The Left Handp. 241
Introduction. National styles of playingp. 241
The violin treatises. The rise of the amateur violinist and its consequencesp. 244
The technique of the violin. Tuning the violinp. 247
Holding the violinp. 247
Holding the bowp. 248
The left hand: fingering, positions, and shifting. Rules for the scordaturap. 249
Terms for shifting. Extensionsp. 251
The Technique of the Violin, 1650-1700 (II): the Right Hand and Related Questions. the Sound of the Violinp. 253
Bowing. The bow strokep. 253
Nuanced and sustained bow strokes. Bremner quoted on Corelli's practicep. 254
The discipline of bowing. The Rule of Down-Bowp. 256
Muffat and French dances. Termsp. 257
Types of bowing and their execution: syncopated bowings, ondeggiando, bariolage, the slurred tremolop. 262
Multiple stops, their notation and performancep. 271
The pizzicato. Special effectsp. 277
Instrumentation and the ensemble. 'Conducting'p. 278
The sound of the violin about 1700p. 281
General Matters Affecting the Violin, 1650-1700p. 285
Ornamentsp. 285
The vibratop. 287
Improvisationp. 288
Dynamicsp. 290
Rhythm and tempop. 292
Alterations of rhythm:p. 294
Lengthening of dotted figuresp. 295
Alteration of dotted and other figures in the context of tripletsp. 296
Notes inegalesp. 303
The Culmination of the Early History of Violin Playing, 1700-1761
Introduction: the 'evolution of progress' theory. A summary view of the violinp. 312
The Violin and Bow of the Early Eighteenth Centuryp. 317
Antonio Stradivari (maturity and old age)p. 317
The Guarneri familyp. 318
Other makersp. 318
Details of the violin and its fittingsp. 319
Other members of the violin family. Terminologyp. 323
The bow. Its evolution. Francois Tourte and the modern bowp. 324
The Violin Music of the Early Eighteenth Centuryp. 331
The development of the violin concerto. The concerto grosso and solo concertop. 331
The sonata. The variation. Program musicp. 336
The development of the violin idiomp. 338
Contributions of individual countriesp. 341
Italy: Vivaldi. Veracini. Tartinip. 341
France: Leclair. Mondonville. Guillemainp. 344
Germany: J. S. Bachp. 348
England: Geminiani. Handel. Ariostip. 350
Other countries: Sweden. Holland (Locatelli). Switzerland. Poland. Spainp. 352
Publication, performance, and patronagep. 354
The Technique of the Violin, 1700-61 (I): The Treatises. Holding the Violin and Bow. The Left Handp. 356
Violin treatises, 1700-61p. 357
The treatises as prototypes: Geminiani, Leopold Mozart, and L'Abbe le filsp. 364
How the violin was playedp. 366
Conventions of notationp. 366
Holding the violin. Tuning the violin. Intonation systemsp. 367
Holding the bowp. 371
The left hand. Fingeringp. 374
Positions, shifting, and the fingerings involvedp. 376
Terminologyp. 378
Shiftingp. 379
Extensions and contractionsp. 381
Harmonics. Combination tonesp. 384
The vibratop. 386
Terminology of the vibratop. 389
The Technique of the Violin, 1700-61 (II): The Right Hand. The Bow Stroke and Bow Change. The Rule of Down-Bowp. 391
The bow stroke. The beginning and endingp. 392
Sol Babitz's theory of the messa di voce strokep. 393
Leopold Mozart's 'Divisions'p. 394
How the bow stroke was made. The bow change. Power and tonep. 397
Bow strokes in general. The Rule of Down-Bowp. 400
Terminology and signsp. 403
The Technique of the Violin, 1700-61 (III): Bow Strokes and Their Executionp. 404
Introduction. Relation of bowing to the character of the musicp. 404
The individual bow strokep. 405
Slurred bowingsp. 407
The violin staccato in the early eighteenth centuryp. 408
Termsp. 408
Signs: dots, strokes, wedgesp. 410
The performance of the individual (unslurred) staccato notep. 411
Slurred staccato, including 'lifted' bowp. 416
Slurred tremolo, legato and staccatop. 422
Mixed bowingsp. 424
Vivaldi's bowings and termsp. 424
The Technique of the Violin, 1700-61 (IV): Multiple Stops. The 'Bach' Bow. Special Effects. Instrumentation and Conducting. The Sound of the Violinp. 427
Double stopsp. 428
Triple and quadruple stops. Their notationp. 429
The 'Bach' bow, a modern invention. Schering and Schweitzerp. 431
Multiple stops in actual practicep. 435
Arpeggiosp. 438
Slurringp. 441
Special effects, including the pizzicatop. 443
Instrumentation and conductingp. 445
The sound of the violin in the early eighteenth centuryp. 447
Specific and Improvised Ornaments. The Cadenzap. 449
The trillp. 450
The mordentp. 453
The appoggiaturap. 455
Improvised ornamentsp. 457
The cadenzap. 461
Terms. The cadenza in Tartini and Locatellip. 464
Tempo. Alterations of Rhythm. Dynamics. Expressionp. 467
Time signatures. Tempo terms. The 'inherent' tempop. 467
Tempo rubatop. 470
Alterations of rhythmp. 472
Notes inegales. Quantz quotedp. 472
Double (or triple) dottingp. 478
Alterations of dotted and other figures in the context of tripletsp. 482
Dynamics: loud, soft, and the shades betweenp. 484
Aesthetics of expression. The Affettop. 490
Practical Hints to Modern Violinistsp. 495
Introduction: the approach to the performance of old music. The intuitive approach. Following the composer's intentionsp. 495
The old violin and the old bowp. 496
The kind of sound to be producedp. 497
The bow and bowingp. 497
Position and fingeringp. 500
Altering the modern violin. Reducing tensionp. 500
Holding the violinp. 502
Other factors, technical and musical, including expressionp. 502
Stradivari's birthdayp. 505
Bibliographyp. 509
Glossaryp. 525
Indexp. 531
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780198161837
ISBN-10: 0198161832
Series: Clarendon Paperbacks
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 636
Published: 22nd February 1990
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.3 x 15.2  x 3.6
Weight (kg): 0.96