In August of 1862, the Santee (Dakota) Sioux tribe, living on reservations in southern Minnesota, launched a spontaneous revolt against its white neighbors. Years of broken treaty promises, mistreatment by corrupt government agents and white traders, and a recent crop failure all ignited the bloody revolt. Looting and killing, the Santee Sioux ravaged the unprotected countryside and small towns of southern Minnesota. They attacked military forts, including the strongly defended Fort Ridgely. When it was all over, more than five hundred people had died in the uprising. But the killing was not yet finished: After a quick trial, thirty-eight Santee Sioux were later hanged to death in the largest mass execution in U.S. history.