The galactic and extragalactic background radiation components are of major importance in astrophysical studies of a variety of problems related to galactic structure, interstellar matter, the distribution and evolution of galaxies and intergalactic matter, and cosmology. The back- ground radiation is a unique source of information in cases where the source is of a truly diffuse nature, as with scattering and emission by interstellar dust and gas, or where the discrete emission sources are so faint (e. g. , very distant galaxies) that they can be observed only by their integrated emission. The galactic and extragalactic background must be discussed together because they are observationally entangled and their proper separation requires a knowledge of both components. The above points are equally valid for the entire electromag- netic spectrum, from gamma rays to long radio waves. Thus, the study of the galactic and extragalactic background radiation is interdisciplinary in its character, and a multi wavelength approach would appear to be dictated by the nature of the topic. The proper separation of the galactic and extragalactic background components requires a knowledge of both. In addition, the foreground components, i. e. , zodiacal light, airglow, and atmospheric scattered light, must be treated carefully.
I. A Historical Review.- The Dark Night-Sky Riddle, "Olbers's Paradox".- II. Galactic Background Starlight from UV to IR: Observations and Models.- Optical Observations of Galactic and Extragalactic Light: Implications for Galactic Structure (Invited Review).- Infrared Background Starlight: Observations and Galaxy Models (Invited Review).- The Ultraviolet Starlight in the Galaxy (Invited Review).- The Interstellar Radiation Field and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Matter (Invited Review).- Polarization of Galactic Background Light in the Visible Spectral Region (Invited Review).- The Surface Brightness of Our Galaxy and Other Spirals (Invited Review).- Fluctuations of the Diffuse Galactic Background.- The Bochum Milky Way Surface Photometry: An Overview.- Blue and Red Brightnesses of the Integrated Starlight Obtained by Star-Counts in 24 Regions.- Stellar Photometry at the North Ecliptic Pole: The Contribution to Background Starlight.- Optical and H-A1pha Emission from Unresolved Red Dwarf Stars in the Galaxy.- A Model of the 8-25 um Point Source Infrared Sky.- Continuum Wavelength Emission from Embedded, Young, and Massive Stellar Objects Beyond 1 um.- Improvements in the IRAS Calibration by Separation of the Different Infrared Surface Brightness Components.- Infrared Radiation from Evolved Stars.- Monte Carlo Simulations of the Galaxy at 12 um: Implications for Galactic Structure.- The Determination of Galactic Arms from the Brightness Distribution of Far Infrared Sources.- III. Diffuse Galactic Radiation from Dust and Gas: Observations and Models.- Diffuse Galactic Light in the UV and Visible (Invited Review).- Infrared Emission at High Galactic Latitude (Invited Review).- Infrared Line Emission by Broadly Distributed Gas (Invited Review).- Faint Optical Line Emission from the Diffuse Interstellar Medium: Observations and Implications (Invited Review).- The Galactic Far Ultraviolet Background (Invited Review).- The Galactic Far-UV Background: Correlations with Gas and Dust at High Galactic Latitudes (Invited Review).- Detection of H? Emission on High Velocity 21 cm Oouds.- Light from Dark Clouds.- High-Resolution V-Band Photometry of the Milky Way.- High-Resolution B-Photometry of the Milky Way and Results on Galactic Structure.- Diffuse [CII] Emission in Interstellar Space.- Optical Characteristics of Galactic 100 um Cirrus.- Measurements of the 3.3 um Diffuse Galactic Emission Feature with AROME.- Multispectral Analysis of IRAS Sky Bux Maps.- Correlation of Infrared Emission with H I and CO Gas in the High Latitude Cloud Area L1642.- The Infrared Brightness of the Ecliptic Plane.- Spectra of the Far-Ultraviolet Background Shortward of 1200 ? from Voyager 2.- Spectroscopic Observations of the Far Ultraviolet Background.- Measurements of the Diffuse Ultraviolet Radiation.- Observations of the Diffuse Ultraviolet Background from the UVX Experiment on Space Shuttle.- The Far Ultraviolet Background: Dust Scattering and the Extragalactic Continuum.- The Global Distribution of Zodiacal Dust.- Luminescence from Small Carbonaceous Dust Grains.- The Relationship Between Gas and Cirrus Dust Filaments at the Edge of the Expanding Shell in Eridanus.- Emission from Dust Near High-Latitude Stars.- Extinction Maps of Dust Clouds from Surface Photometry.- Galactic Background Radiation in the 78 to 111 eV Band.- IV. Extragalactic Background Radiation and Cosmology.- Spectrum and Origin of the Extragalactic Optical Background Radiation (Invited Review).- Observations of the Extragalactic Background Light (Invited Review).- Galaxy Count Models and the Extragalactic Background Light (Invited Review).- Extragalactic Backgrounds: Common Features and New Work on Intracluster Light (Invited Review).- Cosmology and Fluctuations in the Radiation Backgrounds (Invited Review).- The Extragalactic Diffuse Background in the Far Ultraviolet (Invited Review).- Infrared Extragalactic Background Light (Invited Review).- The Extragalactic Radio Source Background (Invited Review).- The Microwave Background Radiation (Invited Review).- The Extragalactic X-ray and ?-ray Backgrounds (Invited Review).- CCD Observation of Diffuse Light in the Rich Ouster A2029.- Modeling Faint Galaxy Counts.- Optical Background from Galaxies.- A New Catalogue of Faint Galaxies.- Extended Halos in the Cluster Abell-426.- Optical Search of Faint IRAS Point Sources in the Virgo Cluster Region.- Dust in Nearby Groups of Galaxies?.- Globular Clusters in NGC 1399 and Background Galaxies.- Vacuum Ultraviolet Background Radiation Around the Virgo Cluster Region.- The Infrared Background Due to Galaxies.- The Extragalactic Background Included in IRAS Point Source Samples.- Far-Infrared Emission from an Intergalactic Dust Cloud?.- Explaining the Infrared and Submillimeter Backgrounds by Decaying Particles.- The Impact of CN Line Profile Measurements on the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature.- A Precise CN Measurement of the Microwave Background at 1.32 mm.- Infrared Dust Emission in Galaxies and Spectral Distortion of Microwave Background.- High Latitude Galactic Emission and the Search for Anisotropies in the CBR.- Cosmic Microwave Background Fluctuation Searches on 5 to 10 Scales.- Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropies in the Far Infrared.- Intensity Fluctuations of the Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Polarization Effects.- The Spectrum Distortion of Relic Radiation in the Moment of Universe Recombination.- Limits on the Energy Density of the Cosmic Infrared Background.- Small-Scale Fluctuations and Anisotropies in the 1-3 keVX-Ray Background.- Properties of the Surface Brightness Distribution of the Cosmic X-Ray Background.- The X-Ray Background from Star-Forming Galaxies.- Statistics of Radio-X-Ray Emission and Magnetic Fields in the Intergalactic Medium.- X-Ray Background Fluctuations from Discrete Sources with a Varying Density Contrast.- Luminosity Inhomogeneity of Quasars and the Upper Limit of the Density Fluctuation in the Universe.- Behaviour of Point Masses Against the Background Radiation with Dissipation in an Expanding Universe.- Can Very Large-Scale Structures Exist in the Universe?.- The Vacuum Electromagnetic Field and the Energetics of the Intergalactic Medium.- V. Future Plans and Approaches.- ISO's Capabilities for IR Background Measurements.- Observations of Diffuse Infrared Radiation by a Small Cryogenical Telescope, IRTS.- HUBE: The Hopkins Ultraviolet Background Experiment.- Imaging Large- and Small-Scale Structures of the Far Ultraviolet Background with the FAUST Instrument.- OFFEQ S: Wide-Field UV Imaging with the Israeli Scientific Satellite.- Far-Ultraviolet Background Studies with the Pan-American Astrophysics Explorer (PAX).- The Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on Spartan-281.- Optical Observing Techniques for Faint Extended Surface Brightness.- The Potential of the Wide Field Camera on ROSAT for Investigations of the XUV Background.- Using IRAS Cirrus to Look for X-Ray Shadowing with ROSAT.- VI. Conference Summaries.- The Extragalactic Background Radiation-1989.- Summary: The Galactic Background Radiation.- Author Index.
Series: International Astronomical Union Symposia
Number Of Pages: 528
Published: 31st August 1990
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6
Weight (kg): 0.74